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Putlog and Independent Scaffolding

A putlog scaffold consists of a single row of standards, parallel to the face of the building and set as far away from it as is necessary to accommodate a platform of four or five boards wide, with the inner edge of the platform as close to the wall as is practicable.

The standards are connected by a ledger fixed with right angle couplers and the putlogs are fixed to the ledgers using putlog couplers. The blade end of the putlog tube (or putlog adaptor) is normally placed horizontally on the brickwork being built, taking care to use the maximum bearing area.

A putlog scaffolding differs from traditional independent-scaffolding as it is actually tied into the building bricks using ‘putlogs' (or tubes) and putlog adapters. Step Scaffolding offers design and traditional putlog scaffolding for private and commercial requirements. All our scaffolders are highly trained and fully qualified and comply with all Government standards.

Where a putlog is required for an intermediate board support and it is opposite an opening in the building, such as window or doorway, the inside end of the putlog should be supported on an underslung bridle tube spanning adjacent putlogs. The bridle tube should be secured with right angle couplers.

Sway bracing is required at intervals not exceeding 30 M but, unlike independent tied scaffolds, ledger bracing is not required in the finished scaffold.

An independent scaffold consists of a double row of standards, with each row parallel to the building. The inner row is set as close to the building as is practicable. The distance between the lines of standards should be the minimum necessary to accommodate the required number of boards and toe boards.

A variation may be adopted in which the row of standards nearest to the building can be set back about 300 mm from the building face. This means that one of the boards of the platform can be laid between the inside row of the standards and the building face.Types of Independent Scaffold are: 

Birdcage scaffold: A birdcage scaffold is an independent scaffold that consists of more than two rows of standards in both directions and is connected by ledgers and transoms. It is mainly used for work that is to be carried out on a single level, such as ceilings.

Tower scaffold: A tower scaffold is an independent scaffold consisting of four vertical members connected longitudinally and transversely.

Mobile Scaffold: A mobile scaffold is an independent scaffold that is freestanding and mounted on castors.

Hung scaffold: A hung scaffold is an independent scaffold that hangs from another structure, but is not capable of being raised or lowered when in use.




Source by bindiyadoss

Rookie Guide On How To Buy A Muscle Car: Determine Your Price Range And Payment Method

Now let's dig into determining what a reasonable price range would be for a particular car, and then go about deciding how to pay for it.

Price Range:
Determining the price range on a major purchase, whether it be a muscle car, a fighter jet, or a dishwasher generally comes down to evaluating your personal financial situation and determining what you can afford.  We'll assume that you already understand that and will stick to determining the price range that the make and model car you are looking at may fall in.

So just how do you really determine the price range for a classic muscle car?  Simple – you need to take a look at what the market thinks it's worth.  Just like real estate, muscle car values are determined by what the market thinks the cars are worth, not by calculating the sum cost of all of their parts.   The price that people are currently paying for muscle cars is key.  It's a subjective thing that relies on supply and demand.  Also, unlike 99% of modern cars, 1960's and '70's muscle cars are really not going down in value anymore.   Their value bottomed out long ago and has been on the rise ever since.  Over the past few years we've seen somewhat of a bubble in values, but they still remain quite high.

Now that we understand how value ranges are established for a make and model, it's clear to see why understanding how you will use your muscle car is critical when doing your car shopping (refer to our previous post for more details).  If you are planning to have a weekend funmobile, a mid-price range car is going to serve you quite well, and you may even be able to go cheaper.  If you're buying a car for an investment a mid-price range car is likely the LOWEST value of car you would go with.  Remember, the unique cars, the popular cars, and the all original cars are going to be at the high end of the price range for that particular make and model.

To see what the market thinks various make and model cars are worth based on their varying condition, simply visit Keith Martin's Collector Car Price Tracker.  It's the best resource on the web to get an idea of the trends in the industry based on SALE prices of cars, and you can look at values over the last several years on a model by model basis.  We offer a free one-month membership to Keith Martin's Collector Market simply by signing up for our newsletter.  Remember, HOW you plan to use the car is a must when looking at car values.  You may come to the conclusion after looking at the sale prices cars have gone for that you need to look at a different make/model, or change your plans in how you will use the car.

In addition to Keith Martin's Collector Car market, start taking notice of all the prices listed in the Classifieds section here at The MuscleCar Place and the other online places as well.  Most asking prices for cars are consistent with what the market will bring (give or take), so you should at least be able to develop a trend.

Payment Method:
Now that you have the make/model down, how you're going to use the car determined, and have a good idea of what the car will cost you to buy it's time to put your payment method together.  Do this BEFORE striking a deal for the car.  Being prepared with information in this step is key to making a purchase that is fair to both you and the car owner, so do your homework ahead of time.

Most dealers do offer financing of some type as a courtesy, but in all honestly the best payment method is the old fashioned one: cash.  Buying a car in cash will help you do a couple of things:

1) It will allow you to negotiate the best price possible
2) It will secure you from (potentially) being upside down in a loan – and remove other risk as well.

If you are buying a car for an investment, the car really can be considered part of your overall portfolio (just as real estate might be).  Never cash out a 401k early to buy a muscle car (or anything for that matter), but instead use cash available on hand or transfer it from other cash investments.  Remember, while muscle car values have been doing well in the past 10 years investment growth is not a guarantee.  Bill Paweski at Arizona Classics routinely recommends to his clients to be mindful of the market – and to be prepared to hang on to the car until the market is ready before even thinking about selling it (which is another good reason to purchase in cash)!

Wrap-up:
Doing your homework up-front will save you a lot of pain later on.  Now is not the time to shortcut the process.  The last thing you'd want to happen would be to end up hating the muscle car that you purchased, and if you follow the process laid out here that will not happen.  Go for it!

In our next and final post in this series we will discuss how to evaluate the car, set up insurance, and purchase!




Source by Robert Kibbe

Be Introduced to Cebu Ladies From Philippine Personals Sites For Marriage

Before anything else, you should know that marriage is a serious thing with Philippines  women, especially for Filipina singles who grew up in Cebu, Philippines . Be attentive that there is no divorce in the Philippines, so people marry really seriously.

There are numerous guys like you who would like to marry a Filipino  woman. Some have a preference to marry a Filipina woman from Cebu, others just want  to date a Filipina lady in their own city.

If you intend to marry a Filipino woman from Cebu , then here are some tips for you.

Be prepared to become a member in Philippine dating sites.

This is the best avenue for you to come across Philippine women from Philippine  who are looking for a serious relationship leading to a wedding.

It is effortless to meet Cebu women online. You can now join  in Filipina dating sites and start communicating with members. If you are keen to be introduced to Filipino girls from Cebu only, then you have the option to do so. More often than not, they are the ones interested to encounter a guy like you looking for a serious relationship leading to a marriage.

Put up an appealing online dating profile.

What I suggest with this is that, you should definitely place a decent and clear photograph of yourself. It ought to be new and not a photograph of you more than a few years ago. Take note, you are looking to wed a Philippines girl. Take into account that matrimony is a serious matter, especially with women from Cebu.

Prepare to travel to Cebu.

If you do not choose  to become a member in Philippine dating sites, then you might as well holiday at Philippines and get a Filipina woman there. This option is a bit more hard for you to come across the best young woman, unless you already have a few Filipino acquaintances who will go with you to Philippine  and show you about and present you to unmarried Philippines ladies whom they know. However, if you just fly on the jet to Philippines, then you will maybe meet the wrong women when you will be there, so be watchful.

Nonetheless, if you previously know Philippines ladies online, and made acquaintances with some of them, you will have the option to select just a few, and then choose one girl among them. You can then decide to meet this girl in Cebu, and come visit her and meet her relatives too. If you are enthusiastic to meet her family, it will show her that you are really sincere about getting to know her better and in your relationship with her. Filipinas have close family ties, and her family is very important to her.

Be trustworthy and reliable.

Philippines ladies are very fussy about faithfulness, so you ought to prove that she can have confidence in you. If you have committed yourself to a serious relationship with a Philippines  girl from Cebu, let her realize that you intend all you say. If you say to her that you will go back and wed her, then do it. If you say to her that you will do all to take her to your country and marry her there, then do it. If you tell her that you love her, then mean it with all your heart. Once you gained a Filipina woman's love and respect, then you will feel to be a very lucky man.




Source by Filipina Kisses

Corvette for Sale – There’s Something for Everyone

Corvettes for sale are displayed online with descriptions and photographs. Classic corvettes for sale are in demand. These Chevrolet Corvettes for sale are prized by their owners and now on sale for you to buy. Corvettes for sale are displayed online with multiple photographs.

We always see a burst of activity following the Labor Day weekend as sellers try to move their Corvettes before winter approaches. Corvette Classified Ads are only $25 and run for 3 months. Jim placed the ad earlier this week and the Corvette has already received a ton a page views and requests for additional information. Do you have a Corvette for sale that you think would be worthy of being featured.

I'm not against a dealer trying to make a buck or two, and perhaps the auction format is the best way to allow the market to decide who wants the Corvette the most. If you want to get behind the wheel of a new or classic Corvette and have a little fun during summer, now is the time. Where other auctions are higher profile and attract the crazy money like Barrett-Jackson's two events, the Corvette auction at Bloomington is a real harbinger of where the Corvette Market is. As usual, a large contingent of 1967 Corvette Big Blocks, making up a remarkable 13% of all Corvettes for sale at the Palm Beach event, will be available for collectors. If you've been dreaming about getting behind the wheel of a Corvette, there is no better place to start looking than VetteFinders.

Corvettes for sale are detailed online with plenty of photos. With over 500 Corvettes for sale, from C1s to C6s, you're sure to find the Corvette of your dreams. Red is the power color of Corvettes and buying a red Corvette will one day make it easier to sell. So buckle up and get your checkbooks ready because these featured Corvettes won't be available for long.

Red Corvettes tend to have a higher resale value and sell faster than most other colors. Even in the later models, Red Corvettes outsell their peers. In 2006, the two reds, Monterey and Victory, combined for nearly 1/3 of all Corvettes produced.

With some many Corvettes on the road and so many Chevrolet Corvette for sale ads, it can be difficult to scan through the Corvette listings for your perfect car. Classic corvettes for sale create interest amongst corvette enthusiasts. Easily compare options and pricing on used Corvettes in your area, from both dealers and private parties. List your used Corvettes for sale here. You may meet someone who has some classic corvettes for sale.

I love looking at Corvettes for sale and it?s always fun when I can bring something unique to the table. These Corvettes don't come up for sale very often, but already this year we've seen three 1953 Corvettes sell and with each sale, the bar is raised. Cars for sale displayed online with detailed pictures. Classic car articles provide excellent details about acquisitions, body and interior restorations, parts for sale and owner?s enthusiasm and dedication.

Classic car value appreciates over time, and original unrestored well cared for cars generally reflect a higher value. You can still get into a very nice small block midyear for under $50,000, and trust me, there's nothing small about owning a 327 ci 300 hp American Classic. Fully documented, longtime ownership and an optional motor all work in favor of this classic. Website shows classic cars for sale with detailed descriptions and multiple photos. The classic car restorer and trader newsletter provides up to date information on classic car news.

Enthusiasts search for eBay classic cars every day. Find your dream car on eBay classic cars. You may also like to visit the classic car for sale page.

Barrett-Jackson announced last year that they would be bringing down the total number of cars in the 2008 Auction from 1,200 to around 1,000. Yes, it's that time of year where chrome, corporate jets, unlimited checkbooks, and gavel to gavel television coverage converge on Scottsdale Arizona for what has become the Super Bowl of automotive auctions. This auction is traditionally one of the largest Corvette auctions of the year.

What's also interesting about this list is that the venerable auction favorite, the 1967 Corvette will only be making 7 appearances whereas last year there was over 20 1967 Corvettes that sold. "Handing over the keys to these prized possessions is going to be tough, but I think there will be some worthy candidates at the Barrett-Jackson auction. We're hoping to see more Corvettes added soon to this very important and historically well-attended auction.




Source by Richard Shryack

Why Buy Property on Lake Placid, Texas?

If you are thinking to buy or sell property within the area of Lake Placid then perhaps spending a few minutes in reading the article below will be a worthwhile investment of your time.

Texas is considered to be the largest state in terms of area among the lower 48 and with a population of nearly 26.5 million residents, it is ranked second, behind California. With constant signs of population growth, many seemingly fruitful real estate opportunities have become available. According to the Texas quarterly housing report, there are clear indications of a booming market. That said if you are contemplating obtaining a real estate license then the state of Texas should be on that list, and fairly close to the top I might add. You can complete the course relatively quickly and take the exams online. It may only take you a month or so to acquire the license however once you have obtained your license you can hit the ground running in this hot market.

According to a recent study, the cities that have endured the highest growth rates include the Woodlands, Austin and San Marcos. And counties like Denton and Frisco have shown some of the more remarkable inclines in the entire state. Another area that appears to be flying under the radar is the city of New Braunfels and neighboring Lake Placid, which we will further have a look into in the following sections.

With flourishing and thriving neighborhoods across Texas, many folks have been looking at Lake Placid in terms of real estate investments and properties. It is a quintessential body of water for those individuals who love the great outdoors. With a variety of activities including camping, boating, fishing and swimming, Lake Placid can easily become a respectable candidate when it comes to real estate investing. The lake itself is based on the Guadalupe River, which is located a few miles from Lake McQueeney, which is another area experiencing steady growth rates. If you are a fan of activities such as boating then you can take advantage of the boat ramp, which is free for public access. Because this lake has attracted many individuals who love the outdoors, several homes and properties have been cropping up.

Most if not all the homes on Lake Placid consist of fascinating views of the lake. The construction of the homes ranges to some degree from contemporary to the more traditional. Several buyers who have recently purchased property in this region are even building their own custom made homes. The amenities are widespread and provide the maximum amount of comfort. The majority of the lake front homes contain private boat docks and secondary outlets for Jet Ski storage. Some of the lake homes even have upstairs patios, which offer some more breathtaking views of the lake and the surrounding area. These may run a bit higher as far as the cost is considered however with lush amenities and extravagant scenery and views, the property value can potentially soar. The current prices of real estate in Lake Placid are generally affordable yet with increasing demands this may not be the case down the line. To avoid making any regretful decisions later on, the time to invest in real estate property and homes on Lake Placid is now. If you plan to buy today it won't be very difficult for you to find a good deal on homes for sale in Lake McQueeney or Lake Placid areas.

If you are in the market for affordable and quality homes in a serene and peaceful environment then add Lake Placid to your list of prospective real estate (http://realestate.about.com/) opportunities. And with an ample amount of outdoor activities and breathtaking views of the lake, the decision should be a no brainer.




Source by Peter Fried

The Virtual Rear View Mirror

This invention is a small single or multi-part LCD screen that is connected to one or more cameras near the rear of a semi. It essentially gives truck drivers a rear view mirror to enhance driver safety and minimize theft.  

Note: Coming up with new ideas is easy. Getting a patent costs about $6,000 and there is no guarantee your idea will ever make you a cent. It's also not that easy to get a company to buy into your idea unless your friends with the CEO or you have lots of extra money to travel around and make presentations.

Short Technical Bio

Daniel Nase attended Pacific Lutheran University at the age of 15 in the Advance College Program and spent a lot of his time reading graduate papers in the university's library. Many of his instructors and mentors were amazed with his ability to think outside the box in business, medicine, mathematics, chemistry and physics. Daniel started working on advanced calculus, Riemann equations and theoretical physics while he was attending Washington High School. He also participated in Air Force JROTC and earned a private pilots license through Clover Park Technical College.

Daniel joined the National Guard at age 16 with parent permission and worked as an Apache / Chinook Helicopter Mechanic for several years before being recommended for an elite officer program in the Nuclear Field. For three years he was engaged in the Navy's rigorous training program in Advanced Electronics and Nuclear Physics in Orlando Florida. He graduated at the top of his class and spent 9 months in the Mediterranean before being honorably discharged.

Daniel designed and built the AMTECH Thermonuclear Converter at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in July of 1997. This nuclear device provides electricity to deep space satellites and was created during the Pathfinder Mission. He also worked on X-ray tubes, electroplating, making silicon carbide crystals, electronic drafting, and generating 3D images in Silicon using two scanning lasers. He earned this prestigious summer internship through the MSEP program with Scott Minnix at the University of Washington and Linda Rodgers at NASA.

In 1997 and 1998 Daniel helped build a mainframe computer from scratch as part of the Work Study Program. He also learned basic AutoCAD and networked all of the computers in the University's four-story Astrophysics building. After he built the mainframe, Daniel ran tests and recorded events in the University of Washington's fusion reactor and also worked on the RAM Accelerator. 

Daniel took a non-executive role in Infinity Group to work as an Installation / Retrofit Engineer III for several years in the semiconductor industry. This is were he applied his training in the military by doing work in network engineering, applications engineering, robotics, UV optics, pneumatics and advanced electronics troubleshooting for KLA-Tencor Corp. He was responsible for installing and aligning Starlight and Lightning series reticle inspection systems throughout the world. This gave him the opportunity to improve his speaking ability in German, Japanese and French.  




Source by Daniel

Action Plan for Successful Export Marketing

Export marketing is a serious issue for most growing companies in today's interconnected global economy. Whether to export or not, where to and how to, are the major questions for companies willing to expand their international markets.

Export marketing is not just a process to find buyers/importers and approach them with the expectation of export orders but a well planned strategic marketing process one should follow and performed well to get success in International Market. Since last 10 years of my International Marketing consultancy practice, I have found that major export marketing efforts get failed due to lack of implementing strategic marketing action plan.

So what is that strategic marketing action plan..?

Strategic marketing action plan is a set of key functional areas of export marketing which should be performed well and followed step by step to get succeed in Export marketing. Performing following key tasks step by step will give you a rapid success in export marketing with sustainable and profitable export sales growth.

Step-1 : Identify your target market

First step of export marketing is to identify target market and market needs where your products/services has good market potential and demand. There are many countries in world and you should pick right one(s) for your product and services. If you know your target market and market needs, you could easily get export orders from those countries. You can identify target market by conducting International Market research activity that will give you detailed knowledge of opportunities in International market.

Step-2 : Developing Export Marketing strategies

After identifying target market, second step of export marketing is to develop a right Export Marketing Strategies including market entry strategy, positioning strategy, product strategy, pricing strategy, branding strategy, supply strategy and promotional strategy according to target market needs. Based on the conclusions of the International market research, you will be able to develop the strategy to meet your export marketing objectives. Your Export Marketing strategies should be able to develop a sense,

• To enter in right market where your products/services has good market potential and demand
• To position appropriately that give you and edge over competitor
• To develop products/services that satisfy needs of buyer,
• To offer prices that give both of you and your buyer a competitive advantage,
• To offer own brand or private label solution
• To supply as per ready stock or buyer's requirements
• To promote your company that creates awareness among buyers/importers

If you have developed right export marketing strategies you could enter and develop international market faster with sustainable export sales growth.

Step-3 : Preparing Marketing Communication tools

Once you have developed strategies based on target market needs, third step is to prepare informative and appealing marketing communication tools like Company Profile, Sales letter, Product Catalogue, Brochures, Website etc. that can supports in positioning and promoting your company. Your all marketing communication tools should be well designed, informative, professional and appealing that can deliver all necessary information of your company and products/services to prospective buyers/importers and influence their decision to start business communication with you.

Step-4 : Promotion

After preparing marketing communication tools, next step is Promotion which plays a major role in export marketing success. Main objective of promotion is to create awareness among buyers/importers of what you are and what you offer. Promotional mix should be cost effective and should deliver right message, in right time and at right place. Promotion should lead buyers/importers to get attention, capture interest and take action in initiating business communication with you. Internet is the best cost effective and fastest promotion tool in present export marketing practices. It has been seen that major buyers/importers using search engines, B2B portals and directories to find and contact genuine suppliers. So presence of your company profile and products/services in major search engines like Google, yahoo and B2B portals like Alibaba.com will give your company a global exposure and creates awareness among buyers/importers effectively. Participating in Trade fairs, Exhibitions and catalogue shows is also a good offline promotional strategy which can generate a direct and live contact with buyers/importers.

Step-5 : Generating Export Inquiries

Success in export Marketing begins with generating genuine export inquiries from prospective buyers/importers which requires expertise and focused work of promotion, sourcing genuine buyers and approaching them professionally. One should study buyer's profile and/or buy leads to know whether you can offer them what they requires. It has been seen that many suppliers contact majority of those buyers/importers who have no interest in their product/services without understanding their profile and needs. A Buyer/importer can send you inquiry only when he needs your products/services either better than his existing supplier in terms of either Quality, Price, Services and/or developing more suppliers and/or for other reasons. So contact them by offering competitive advantage which can get them interested to send you inquiries which can be converted in to export orders by communicating and negotiating professionally.

All above steps are inter connected and can only give results if each step performed or performing well. Export marketing is a continuous process and all those key functions can be reviewed and modified time to time as per changing global economic and market situation.




Source by Azaz Motiwala

RAF Alconbury

Units

The host unit at RAF Alconbury is the 423d Air Base Group (423 ABG) which supplies host unit services for Alconbury as well as RAF Molesworth and RAF Upwood. The 423 ABG also provides services to the 426th Air Base Squadron at Sola Air Station, Stavanger, Norway.

The group comprises six squadronsecurity forces and civil engineer, air base, medical and servicesnd supports tenant units. It manages the daily activities in the community and maintains all facilities, services, and housing. Its primary mission is support for the U.S. European Command Joint Analysis Center, Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) and National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) at RAF Molesworth. The group also supports the USAF Clinic at RAF Upwood, which serves the immediate medical needs of active duty personnel, their families and retired military that live in the area.

The 423 ABG command section and orderly room are located at Alconbury as are many of the support units and recreational facilities for the Tri-Base Area.

RAF Alconbury is also the home of the 501st Combat Support Wing (501 CSW). The 501 CSW is the command and control authority over geographically separated USAFE units in the United Kingdom. The 501 CSW ensures United Kingdom-based air base groups are resourced, sustained, trained and equipped to exacting command standards in order to provide mission support that enables United States and NATO war fighters to conduct full spectrum flying operations during expeditionary deployments, theater munitions movements, global command and control communications to forward deployed locations, support for theater intelligence operations and joint/combined training.

RAF Alconbury is about 0.308 sq mi (0.798 km) in area.

Historical overview

RAF Alconbury is named after the nearby village of Alconbury.

It was previously named Royal Air Force Station Abbots Ripton from 1938 to 9 September 1942 while under RAF Bomber Command control.

The United States Army Air Force (USAAF) called the facility Alconbury Airdrome, USAAF Station #102 from 9 September 1942 - July 1945, then simply USAAF Station #102, until 26 November 1945.

USAAF Station #547 Abbots Ripton, home of 2nd Strategic Air Depot is now the current-day active portion of RAF Alconbury, the former airfield part of Alconbury being the World War II Alconbury Airdrome.

The United States Air Force initially called the facility Alconbury RAF Station, 24 August 1951 - 18 December 1955.

During World War II, it was controlled by the USAAF Eighth Air Force, from 23 February 1944 to 7 August 1945 the United States Strategic Air Forces in Europe (USSAFE), thereafter the United States Air Forces in Europe,

Historical interest sites on the base are:

A replica F-5E aircraft is on display outside the front gate

An A-10 aircraft is on display near the base parade field

The original World War II era control tower is still standing in the old airfield section

A World War II era building in the farm field just east of the current base perimeter, along with several wartime buildings on the old technical site (Site #5) on the west side of the former airfield.

Several World War II T-2 hangars are still in use on the airfield section.

Several World War II bomber hardstands (both frying pan and loop type) remain on the airfield section.

Major Units Assigned

United States Army Air Forces

93d Bombardment Group, 7 Sep 1942 - 5 Dec 1942

92d Bombardment Group, 6 Jan - 15 Sep 1943

95th Bombardment Group, 15 Apr - 15 Jun 1943

482d Bombardment Group, 20 Aug 1943 - 21 May 1945

801st Bombardment Group (Provisional), Jan - 1 May 1944

94th Bombardment Wing, 12 - 18 Jun 1945

2d Bombardment Wing, 12 Jun - 26 Aug 1945

1st Bombardment Wing, 26 Jun - 26 Aug 1945

1st Air Division, 20 Sep - 31 Oct 1945

406th Bombardment Squadron, 11 Nov 1943 - 7 Feb 1944

857th Bombardment Squadron, 11 Jun - 6 Aug 1945

652d Bombardment Squadron, 13 Jul - 25 Oct 1945

36th Bombardment Squadron

Attached to 328th Service Group, assigned to RAF Watton, operated from Alconbury, 7 Feb-28 Mar 1944

Assigned to: 1st Bombardment Division, 28 Feb - 15 Oct 1945

United States Air Force

7560th Air Base Squadron, 7 Nov 1954 - 25 Mar 1955

Redesignated: 7560th Air Base Group, 25 Mar 1955 - 25 Aug 1959

86th Bombardment Squadron, 15 Sep 1955 - 5 Aug 1959

42d Troop Carrier Squadron, 31 May - 8 Dec 1957

53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron, 25 Apr - 9 Aug 1959

10th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing, 25 Aug 1959 - 20 Aug 1987

Redesignated: 10th Tactical Fighter Wing, 10 Aug 1987 - 31 Mar 1993

Redesignated: 10th Air Base Wing, 31 Mar 1993 - 1 Oct 1994

527th Tactical Fighter Training Aggressor Squadron, 1 Apr 1976 - 14 Jul 1988

17th Reconnaissance Wing, 1 Oct 1982 - 30 Jun 1991

Assigned to Strategic Air Command Eighth Air Force 7th Air Division

39th Special Operations Wing, 1 Dec 1992 - 1 Jan 1993

352d Special Operations Group, 1 Jan 1993 - 17 Feb 1995

710th Air Base Wing, 1 Oct 1994 - 12 Jul 1995

423d Air Base Squadron, 12 Jul 1995 - 1 Jul 2005 (Based at RAF Molesworth)

Redesignated: 423d Air Base Group, 1 Jul 2005 - Present

501st Combat Support Wing, 1 May 2007resent

Reference

Operational history

Origins

In 1937, Royal Air Force Bomber Command was drawing up plans for dispersal of their aircraft in the event of air raids on its stations. Despite efforts to keep new airfield sites and measures to camouflage them secret, there was little doubt that the potential enemy knew exactly where they were and would have little difficulty in finding them from the air.

Satellite bases were considered one answer to this threat - a landing ground within reasonable road travel distance of the parent airfield to which aircraft could be diverted if the home station was bombed or likely to be attacked. These satellite bases would be equipped with a level of support that would allow operations to take place if the main airbase were taken out of action.

In the spring of 1938, the Air Ministry acquired about 150 acres (0.6 km2) of open meadowland at Alconbury Hill, Huntingdonshire, expressly for use as a satellite airfield. The exact location was adjacent to the ancient Roman road Ermine Street, north-west of Little Stukeley village, near to the junction where Ermine Street became theA1 instead of the A14.

After a minimal amount of construction, RAF Alconbury was tested in May 1938 when No. 63 Squadron, the first to be equipped with the Fairey Battle light bomber, flew in from its home station of RAF Upwood five miles (8 km) away. This was a two-day training exercise and other squadrons were to follow over the next 15 months.

During this period, RAF Alconbury consisted of a few wooden huts but plans were made to provide both refuelling and rearmament facilities.

RAF Bomber Command use: 1939-1941

In September 1939, RAF Upwood squadrons were given operational training roles and Alconbury became RAF Wyton's satellite under No. 2 Group, Squadron Nos. 12, 40 and 139. These squadrons were frequently deployed to Alconbury, No. 139 being the first to be actually stationed there, if only for nine days.

Squadrons 15 and 40 converted from Battles to Bristol Blenheim bombers, but did not take part in bombing raids with the new type until the German Blitzkrieg was unleashed in May 1940.

No. 15 Squadron took up residence on 14 April 1940, when additional requisitioned accommodation was available. It flew its first raid of the war on 10 May against a German occupied airfield near Rotterdam. All eight aircraft returned, some with flak damage. A following operation, an attempt to break the Albert Canal at Maastricht, was disastrous as half the 12-plane force dispatched failed to return.

The remnants of No. 15 then moved back to RAF Wyton and Alconbury reverted to satellite use by both Wyton squadrons. In the autumn of 1940 these decimated units were scheduled to be converted to Vickers Wellington bombers and on 1 November 1940, RAF Wyton and Alconbury came under the control of No. 3 Group.

In late 1940/41, an expansion of RAF Alconbury commenced to upgrade its facilities from a satellite airfield to a fully operational one. A main concrete runway bearing 00-18 was built 1,375 yards (1,257 m) long, the ancillaries 06-24 being 1,240 yards (1,130 m) and 12-30 at 1,110 yards (1,010 m), all 50 yards (46 m) wide. The encircling perimeter track served 30 pan type hardstandings, most leading off of five long access tracks on the northern side of the airfield. Construction was of 12-inch (300 mm) concrete with an asphalt covering.

The technical site on the north-west side was expanded where a single T2 hangar was also erected. A second T2 was sited adjacent to the hardstanding complex east of the threshold of runway 18. Personnel accommodation was provided to the south-west side of the A14, around Alconbury House which had been requisitioned earlier. This upgrade of RAF Alconbury was performed by W & C French Ltd.

The construction attracted the attention of the Luftwaffe as the flying field of RAF Alconbury was attacked by German bombers on 16 September 1940, although no serious damage was done.

While this work was in progress, No. 40 Squadron brought its Wellingtons to Alconbury in February 1941 and operated on night raids until the autumn. Targets attacked were industrial targets in Germany but also on the German Navy in the ports on the Atlantic coast of France. One notable operation in which they took part was the large raid flown on 24 July against Brest, where some of the principal German battleships were undergoing repairs in preparation for a new campaign against British shipping.

This was the time of the Blitz, when many parts of Britain were being subjected to an almost nightly series of heavy air raids. On two nights, 8 March and 11 June, RAF Alconbury was again bombed and on both of these occasions one Wellington was damaged on the ground.

In October 1941 two of its flights with 16 Wellingtons were dispatched to operate from Malta, supposedly on an emergency detachment. The remainder of No. 40 soldiered on but never had more than eight aircraft on strength. By February 1942 it was evident that the major section of No. 40 would not be returning from the Mediterranean area and on 14 February 1942 the remaining aircraft at RAF Alconbury formed into No. 156 Squadron RAF.

Operations from Alconbury with No. 3 Group continued until August 1942 when No. 156 was chosen to become one of the special Pathfinder Force units, moving to RAF Warboys early that month. This was the end of RAF Bomber Command's association with Alconbury.

A total of 67 bombers had been lost in RAF Bomber Command operations flown from Alconbury, eight were Blenheims and 59 Wellingtons.

USAAF use: 19421945

RAF Alconbury, 12 March 1943

In May 1942, RAF Alconbury was allocated to the United States Eighth Air Force when a number of stations in East Anglia were turned over to the Americans after their entry into the war. It was designated by the USAAF as Station 102 (AL). The first USAAF unit to be activated at Alconbury was the 357th Air Services Squadron on 18 August 1942. The first base commander was Col. Edward J. Timberlake, taking command on 6 December.

Also in 1942, to bring the station up to Class A airfield standards, the runways were extended to 2,000 yards (Main), and 1,400 yards (Secondary), with 26 additional hardstands along with the taxiways altered. Two T-2 type hangars, located on on the west side and one on the north of the main airfield, were provided for major maintenance work. One hangar was close to the technical site, a collection of prefabricated buildings for specialist purposes.

The commercial buildings and barracks were dispersed in nearby farmland to the south east of the airfield on the other side of the A14 highway. The bomb and ammunition stores were sited on the opposite side of the airfield to the personnel living quarters. This was the usual arrangement for safety reasons.

In addition, two underground gasoline storage facilities, with a total capacity of 216,000 gallons were situated at points adjacent to the perimeter track, but at some distance from the explosive storage area.

At one frying-pan-shaped hardstand on the north side of the airfield, an earth shooting-in butt was constructed. This was about 25 feet (7.6 m) high.

The total area of land occupied by RAF Alconbury in 1942 was about 500 acres (2 km) with 100 acres (0.4 km2) taken up by concrete and buildings.

93d Bombardment Group (Heavy)

93d Bomb Group Consolidated B-24D-1-CO Liberator, AAF Serial No. 41-23711, at RAF Alconbury England in 1942. This aircraft was lost over Austria 1 October 1943. MACR 3301

The first American Eighth Air Force unit to take residence at RAF Alconbury was the 93d Bombardment Group, known as the "Travelling Circus" from Fort Myers AAF (Page Field), Florida on 7 September 1942. It was assigned to the 20th Combat Bombardment Wing at RAF Horsham St Faith near Norwich. The group flew B-24 Liberator aircraft with a tail code of "Circle B". Its operational squadrons were:

328th Bomb Squadron (GO)

329th Bomb Squadron (RE)

330th Bomb Squadron (AG)

409th Bomb Squadron (YM)

The 93d was the first Liberator-equipped bomber group to reach the Eighth Air Force. The group became operational with the B-24 on 9 October 1942 by attacking steel and engineering works at Lille France. Until December, the group operated primarily against submarine pens along the French coast along the Bay of Biscay.

While the 93d was at RAF Alconbury, His Majesty, King George VI paid his first visit to an Eighth Air Force base on 13 November 1942. During the visit, he was shown the B-24 "Teggie Ann", then considered to be the 93d's leading aircraft.

On 6 December 1942, most of the group was transferred to Twelfth Air Force in North Africa to support the Operation Torch landings. The balance of the 93d BG was moved to RAF Hardwick (Station 104), near Bungay, Suffolk where B-24 groups were being concentrated.

92d Bombardment Group (Heavy)

Senior Pilots pose in front of a 325th Bomb Squadron Boeing B-17F-105-BO, AAF Serial No. 42-30455, after a successful mission to Hlser Berg Germany in late June 1943. Equipped with radar, this aircraft flew several missions as the lead aircraft of the group. Unfortunately, this aircraft went down in North Sea 16 November 1943 while returning from Norway after being transferred to the 390th BG/569th BS at RAF Framlingham in Suffolk. 10 crew MIA. MACR 1400

Unidentified 92d Bomb Group B-17F at Alconbury Airfield, summer 1943. In the background is a familiar sight to anyone who ever served at Alconbury, the village of Little Stukeley

Replacing the 93d BG, the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress equipped 92d Bombardment Group transferred to Alconbury from RAF Bovingdon on 11 January 1943.

The 92d Bomb Group was known as "Fame's Favorite Few", and it was assigned to the 4th Combat Wing, at RAF Thurleigh. The group tail code was a "Triangle B". Its operational squadrons were:

325th Bomb Squadron (NV)

326th Bomb Squadron (JW)

327th Bomb Squadron (UX)

407th Bomb Squadron (PY)

Initially, after two combat missions in September, 1942, the 92d was withdrawn from combat and its B-17F bombers exchanged for the older B-17E bombers being flown by the 97th Bomb Group. It then acted as an operational training unit supplying combat crews to combat groups in the UK. However, in early 1943, the diversion to Operation Torch of heavy bomber groups originally planned for the Eighth Air Force led to a decision to return the 92nd to combat operations. The 92d Bomb Group resumed flying missions on May 1, 1943, although its 326th Bomb Squadron was left at Bovingdon to continue the OTU mission, its 325th squadron was used to provide a cadre for H2S radar training, and its 327th squadron acquired a special mission.

From Alconbury, the 92d engaged in bombing strategic targets, including shipyards at Kiel, ball-bearing plants at Schweinfurt, submarine installations at Wilhelmshaven, a tire plant at Hannover, airfields near Paris, an aircraft factory at Nantes, and a magnesium mine and reducing plant in Norway.

On 15 September 1943, the 92d BG was moved to RAF Podington (Station 109), near Wellingborough in Bedfordshire when the decision was made to take Alconbury off operational bombing missions and change the airfield's mission to pathfinder and radar-guided bombing with the 482d and 801st Bomb Groups.

YB-40 Project

Its 327th became the only squadron to be equipped with the experimental YB-40 Fortress gunship from May through August, 1943. The YB-40 was developed to test the escort bomber concept. Because there were no fighters capable of escorting bomber formations on deep strike missions early in World War II, the USAAF tested heavily armed bombers to act as escorts and protect the bomb-carrying aircraft from enemy fighters. Twelve of the 22 B-17F bombers modified to the YB-40 configuration were dispatched to Alconbury for testing and evaluation.

The YB-40 project failed because the aircraft were able to effectively defend only themselves, were too slow because of excess weight and drag to keep up with bomber formations returning from missions, and had basic flight characteristics altered by the added drag and centre of gravity changes resulting from the changes. After 14 operational missions, the 11 surviving YB-40's were taken out of combat service and returned to the United States.

95th Bombardment Group (Heavy)

The smoking wreckage of Boeing B-17F-65-BO, AAF Serial No. 42-29685

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From 15 April to the first week of June 1943, the 95th Bombardment Group was stationed at RAF Alconbury, being transferred Rapid City AAF, South Dakota. This was during a time of massive construction of airfields in East Anglia, and the 95th's assigned station, RAF Horham (Station 119) was not yet ready to receive the group. The 95th was assigned to the 13th Combat Bombardment Wing at RAF Horsham St Faith. The group flew B-17 Flying Fortresses with a tail code of "Square B". Its operational squadrons were:

334th Bomb Squadron (BG)

335th Bomb Squadron (OE)

336th Bomb Squadron (ET)

412th Bomb Squadron (QW)

While at Alconbury, the group's aircraft were being ferried in from the States and the ground echelon was arriving by transport ship in the UK. Practice and familiar flying was performed, and on 13 May the first operational mission was flown by attacking an airfield at St. Omer. During the next month the group made repeated attacks against V-weapon sites and airfields in France. On 27 May, at approximately 20:30, ground personnel were arming B-17F 42-29685 in the dispersal area when, inexplicably, a 500 pound bomb detonated. The explosion, in turn, set off several other bombs. In an instant, 18 men were killed, 21 injured, and four B-17s completely destroyed on the ground. Eleven other B-17s were damaged.

In early June 1943 the 95th BG began moving to RAF Horham, with the last aircraft departing Alconbury on 15 June.

482d Bombardment Group (Pathfinder)

World War II USAAF Map, RAF Alconbury

482d Bomb Group B-24s from RAF Alconbury England on bomb run over occupied Europe - 1943

In the summer of 1943, experiments with radar for high-altitude bombing through clouds were conducted. A special organization, the 482d Bombardment Group, was formed to use this technology and be devoted to pathfinder techniques using the H2S, H2X and APS-15A RADAR that was developed.

The 482d Bomb Group was formed at Alconbury on August 20, 1943, under the command of Lt Col Baskin R. Lawrence, who had been training its 92d BG cadre since May 1. Its operational squadrons were:

812th Bomb Squadron (MI)

813th Bomb Squadron (PC)

814th Bomb Squadron (SI)

The 812th Bomb Squadron arrived from the United States in September with 12 new B-17 aircraft equipped with U.S. manufactured H2S radar. The 813th was a re-designation of the 325th Bomb Squadron, 92d Bomb Group, which had been training in British-manufactured H2S and Oboe B-17s since May. The 814th flew B-24 Liberator aircraft acquired from a disbanded anti-submarine warfare group. The 482d Group was unique among Eighth Air Force units in that it was the only one to be officially activated in the UK from scratch.

The 482d BG provided pathfinder (PFF) lead aircraft for other bomb groups throughout the winter of 1943/44. As lead aircraft, 482 BG B-17s and B-24s usually flew missions from stations of other groups with some key personnel of the host group flying in the pathfinder aircraft.

In March 1944, the 482d BG was taken off combat operations and became a training and development unit for various radar devices, but continued to undertake special operations, notably D-Day when 18 crews were provided to lead bomb groups.

The 482d BG was transferred to Composite Command in February 1944 when emphasis shifted to training radar operators. The 482d began an H2X training school on February 21, 1944, graduating a class of 36 radar navigators each month, as the PFF force was decentralized first to the air divisions and eventually to all the combat groups, with training initially conducted by RAF instructors. Training and experimentation remained its chief role for the remainder of war.

From August 1944 to April 1945 the 482d BG conducted 202 radar scope and 'pickling' sorties over hostile territory without loss, dropping 45 tons of bombs in Nazi controlled territory. In November, 1944, the group was re-designated as the 482d Bomb Group, Heavy.

801st Bombardment Group (Provisional)

In November 1943, a unit was formed to clandestinely deliver agents and supplies into Nazi-occupied Europe for the Office of Strategic Services (O.S.S.). To address this mission, the 36th and 406th Bomb Squadrons with specially modified B-24 Liberators were formed and activated at Alconbury. They were attached to the 482nd Bombardment Group. This was the beginning of the Carpetbagger project.

The purpose of the Carpetbagger project was to fly Special Operations missions which entailed delivering supplies to resistance groups in enemy occupied countries. The squadrons flew agents and supplies into southern France with B-24 Liberators that had all armament removed except in the top and tail turrets. In addition, the standard bomb shackles were removed from the bomb bay and British shackles were installed to accommodate special supply canisters. All unneeded radio gear was removed, as were the oxygen bottles. Flash suppressors were installed on the guns, flame dampeners were installed on the turbo-superchargers, and blackout curtains were installed over the waist gun windows. Light bulbs were painted red to spare night vision and special radio gear was added to assist in navigation and homing in on drop zones. The undersides of the aircraft were painted black to avoid detection by enemy searchlights. Combat with the enemy was avoided as it only endangered the success of the mission. Drops were also made using radio-navigation equipment. Supplies were also released in containers designed to be dropped from the existing equipment in the bomb bay. Pilots often flew several miles farther into enemy territory after completing the drop to disguise the actual drop zone in case enemy observers were tracking the plane's movement.

These squadrons were formed from the personnel and equipment of the recently disbanded 4th and 22d Antisubmarine Squadrons at RAF Podington. However, owing to lack of sufficient facilities at Alconbury, in mid-December the two squadrons were reassigned to the Eighth Air Force Composite Command (Special Operations Group), (remaining attached to the 482d Bomb Group) and moved to RAF Watton (Station 376), near Thetford in Norfolk.

The move to RAF Watton did not prove to be fortuitous. The heavy B-24s were incompatible with the grass runways and muddy hard standings there and were forced to move back to Alconbury in January, 1944.

On 4 January 1944, planes from the Carperbagger squadrons made its first drop of arms and supplies to French, Belgian and Italian partisans. Often operating in weather considered impossible for flying, the squadrons flew most of their missions to supply French partisan groups north of the Loire River in support of the upcoming D-Day invasion. Due to the clandestine nature of their mission, Alconbury's relative openness proved unsuitable . However, a new airfield under construction in the depths of rural Northamptonshire, RAF Harrington (Station 179) proved ideal for Carpetbagger operations. The advanced echelon of the squadrons moved into Harrington on March 25, 1944.

On 1 April the 36th and 406th Bomb Squadrons were attached to the 801st Bombardment Group (Provisioanl) and on May 1 the Carpetbaggers officially departed Alconbury. The 801st (Provisional) eventually acquired the designation of the 492d Bombardment Group, a 2d Division unit stood down on August 11, 1944, because of heavy losses and the two squadrons were redesignated the 856th (formerly 36th) and 858th (formerly 406th) Bombardment Squadrons.

36th Bomb Squadron

The redesignation of the Carpetbagger squadrons made the designation of "36th Bombardment Squadron" available again and it was assigned to the 803d Bomb Squadron, a provisional squadron then located at RAF Cheddington and known as the Radar Countermeasure (RCM) Unit. This third incarnation of the 36th BS (the first had been an Eleventh Air Force unit) went back to Alconbury in February, 1945, and was administratively assigned to the 482d Bombardment Group. However operational control for the 36th's special missions and training were exercised by Eighth Air Force Headquarters.

The 36th Bomb Squadron was the Eighth Air Force's only electronic warfare squadron using specially equipped B-24s to jam Nazi VHF communications during large Eighth Air Force daylight raids. In addition, the 36th BS flew night missions with the Royal Air Force Bomber Command 100 Group at RAF Sculthorpe.

The 36th BS's missions involved trickery, ingenious deception, spoofs, and tank communications jamming. This squadron flew on bad weather days during the Battle of the Bulge as well, when the rest of the Eighth Air Force stood down.

Along with these electronic warfare missions, the 36th BS also flew regular sorties which set out to discover the frequencies being used by the Nazis for their radio and radar devices. For this they operated a number of P-38 Lightning twin boomed fighters from Alconbury as well as their B-24s.

Station 547 - Abbots Ripton, 2nd Strategic Air Depot

In addition to being an operational bomber base, RAF Alconbury served as the flying field for the 2nd Strategic Air Depot at RAF Abbots Ripton (station 547), which served the B-17 groups of the 1st Air Division as a major maintenance base. Although physically attached, the depot was considered a separate entity and was a separate operating unit from RAF Alconbury.

The Air Depot was constructed in 1943 on the eastern site of the airfield, mainly in the village of Little Stukeley, approximately where the current modern-day RAF Alconbury facilities are presently located. It composed of a looped taxiway off the perimeter track with 24 additional hardstands. A technical complex of engineering shops was adjacent to the site and beyond along the south east side of the A14. Also there were several barracks and communal sites.

Abbots Ripton performed heavy maintenance, repair and modification of B-17s from the fourteen Groups which formed the 1st Bombardment Wing, later renamed the 1st Bombardment Division on September 13, 1943, to end confusion of the term "wing" with the operational combat wings (in January 1945, it was renamed again, becoming the 1st Air Division). It was a common sight to see many B-17's from many groups of the 8th Air Force undergoing repair for battle damage repairs from bases such as Molesworth, Chelveston, Kimbolton, Bassingbourn, Grafton Underwood, Polebrook, Glatton, Deenethorpe, Nuthampstead, Podington, Bovington, Watton, Harrington, Thurleigh and Ridgwell.

Its unit designation was the 5th and 35th Air Depot Groups and as a large and important unit, with over 3000 personnel assigned.

Station 103 - Brampton, 1st Air Division

Brampton, about 3 miles (5 km) to the south west of Alconbury, was the headquarters of the 8th Air Force 1st Bombardment Wing, later renamed the 1st Bombardment Division on September 13, 1943, to end confusion of the term "wing" with the operational combat wings (in January 1945, it was renamed again, becoming the 1st Air Division). From RAF Brampton Grange, as it was termed in official records, the 1st BW/BD/AD directed combat operations of B-17 bomber and fighter groups under its command from August 19, 1942, to the end of the war. It was an administrative headquarters which relied on Alconbury for logistical support and its flying requirements.

Postwar USAAF use

Operational bomber missions ceased at RAF Alconbury at the end of April, 1945. The 482nd Bomb Group departed Alconbury between 2730 May 1945, however, the 36th Bomb Squadron stayed at the base until the fall, not deactivating until 15 October.

Day-to-day command of Alconbury was assumed by the 435th Air Services Group on 15 April. The final USAAF base commander was Col. Robert F. Hambaugh.

The 857th Bomb Squadron from the 492d Bomb Group was transferred to Alconbury on 11 June from RAF Harrington near Kettering after the closure of that airfield. The 857th used its B-24s for various cargo ferrying operations to and from the continent until 6 August until being deactivated.

The 652d Bomb Squadron was transferred from RAF Watton on 11 June. This squadron flew specially-equipped B-17s on weather reconnaissance missions until 25 October.

Hq., 1st Air Division was transferred to Alconbury on 20 September upon the closure of Brampton Grange. Both the 1st AD and the 435th ASG were inactivated on 31 October and the facility turned over to Hq. Eighth Air Force. Alconbury airfield was handed back to the RAF on November 26, 1945.

RAF Alconbury was subsequently placed in caretaker status by RAF Maintenance Command and remained so for almost a decade. Until 1951, the RAF used the airfield as a bomb storage and disposal site.

USAF use: 1953-Current

Map of RAF Alconbury about 1977. Note the outlines of the former Abbots Ripton Air Depot hardstands still visible.

In response to the threat by the Soviet Union, especially after the 1948 Berlin Blockade and the 1950 invasion of South Korea by Communist forces, it was decided in 1951 to re-establish a strong American force in Europe. On 24 August 1951, RAF Alconbury was once more allocated for American use - now by the independent United States Air Force.

Alconbury was far from adequate in its World War II configuration, both in its flying facilities and in its accommodation, so plans were designed for a major expansion to accommodate the new jet aircraft and other operational facilities. Alconbury required upgrading with strengthening and extension of runway 12-30 to 3,000 yards (2,700 m) by 67 yards (61 m). In addition, new aircraft standings, access tracks together with an on-going construction of service and domestic buildings continued for some years.

7560th Air Base Group

The United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE) officially took control of RAF Alconbury for a second time on 1 June 1953. The first base commander was Lt. Col. Winfield H. Brown. The first United States Air Force unit to be assigned was the 1st Motor Transport Maintenance Squadron, being activated on the station 1 September 1953.

On 1 January 1954 the 7523d Support Squadron was activated. This was later redesignated as the 7560th Air Base Squadron on 7 November 1954 and the 7560th Air Base Group on 21 March 1955.

86th Bombardment Squadron

North American B-45A-1-NA Tornado AF Serial No. 48-0010 of 86th Bomb Squadron. This aircraft is now on display at the Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.

Although construction had been ongoing at Alconbury since 1951, it was not until September 1955 that it was ready to house flying units again with the arrival of the 86th Bombardment Squadron (Light), flying the B-45A Tornado.

The 86th BS operated from Alconbury as a detachment of the Tactical Air Command's 47th Bombardment Wing stationed at RAF Sculthorpe, Norfolk. The 47th BS operated three jet bomber squadrons (19th, 84th, and 85th) from Sculthorpe and the addition of the 86th BS necessitated the use of Alconbury to accommodate the additional aircraft.

In May 1958, the re-equipment of the 47th Bombardment Wing began and B-66 Destroyers began flying into Alconbury to replace the B-45s. With this equipment change, the 86th was redesignated 86th Bombardment Squadron (Tactical). The 47th Bomb Wing and the 86th Bomb Squadron were part of the Tactical Air Command (TAC).

42d Troop Carrier Squadron

In May 1957 the 42d Troop Carrier Squadron arrived at Alconbury with a mixed fleet of C-119 Flying Boxcar, Grumman SA-16A AmphibiansC-54s and C-47 Dakotas. The 42d TCS was formed at nearby RAF Molesworth in October 1956 where it had previously operated as the MATS 582d Air Resupply and Communications Group performing special operations missions for HQ USAFE.

The 42d TCS had a short life at Alconbury and was deactivated on 8 December 1957. The C-54's and C-47's were sent to Rhein-Main Air Base West Germany, and the C-119s were sent to the 322d Air Division at Evreux-Fauville Air Base France.

53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron

WB-50D, AF Serial No. 48-0115, Weather Reconnaissance Aircraft

On 26 April 1959 Alconbury saw the arrival of the 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron from RAF Burtonwood. The 53rd WRS flew the WB-50D Superfortress and was assigned to the Military Air Transport Service (MATS). Its mission was collecting weather data that was transmitted to weather stations for use in preparing forecasts required for the Air Force. Military Air Transport Service (MATS) and the U.S. Weather Bureau. The squadron was reassigned to RAF Mildenhall on 10 Aug 1959 in conjunction with the arrival of the 10th TRW.

10th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing

On 25 August 1959, the 10th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing arrived from Spangdahlem Air Base, West Germany, replacing the 7560th Air Base Group as the host unit at Alconbury. The 7560th was deactivated. The 10th TRW had been activated at Frstenfeldbruck Air Base, West Germany in April 1947, then assigned to Toul-Rosieres Air Base, France in 1952 then to Spangdahlem in 1953 as part of various USAFE reorganizations.

In Germany, the 10th TRW operated RF-80A Shooting Stars and RB-26C Invader reconnaissance aircraft. In October 1954, the wing received RB-57 Canberras and then acquired RF-84 Thunderjets in July 1955. In November 1956 the 10th received Douglas RB-66 and WB-66 Destroyer aircraft in 1957.

B-66 Era

Douglas RB-66B-DL Destroyer, AF Serial No. 54-0419, converted to EB-66E, at Det. 1, 10th TRW, Toul-Rosieres AB, France. This aircraft was retired to MASDC in October 1972

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USAFE organizational changes in 1959 moved the 10th TRW out of the Eifel and to Alconbury, where the wing would reside for the next 34 years. To accommodate the 10th TRW, the 86th Bomb Squadron was returned to its host unit at RAF Sculthorpe and the 53rd Weather Squadron was transferred to RAF Mildenhall. These redeployments were completed by August 1959.

Although the 10th TRW wing headquarters was located at RAF Alconbury, two of its component squadrons were not. The 1st and 30th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadrons were based at Alconbury, however to accommodate the increased number of aircraft of the 10th, two other airfields, RAF Bruntingthorpe and RAF Chelveston, were placed under Alconbury's control. The 19th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron was stationed at Bruntingthorpe while the 42nd Electronic Countermeasures Squadron was at Chelveston flying RB-66C and WB-66s for electronic and weather reconnaissance.

Following the closure of Bruntingthorpe in 1962 and the active runway at Chelveston in 1963, the 19th and 42nd ECSs were transferred to Toul-Rosieres AB, where they operated for a few years as Det #1, 10th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing. Eventually the 10 TRW would rotate aircraft to Toul AB from 4 different squadrons, the 1st, 19th, 30th and 42d.

On 10 March 1964, a 42 TRS RB-66C deployed to Toul was shot down over East Germany after it crossed over the border due to an instrument malfunction. The crew ejected and were taken prisoner briefly before being released.

These rotational deployments to France continued until October 1965 with the activation of the 25th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing at Chambley-Bussieres Air Base and the 19th and 42nd TRSquadrons being permanently assigned to the 25th TRW.

With France's withdrawal from NATO's integrated military organization in 1966, Chambley AB was closed and the 25th TRW was inactivated. The RB-66s of the 19th TRS were returned to CONUS, being assigned to the 363rd TRW, Shaw AFB, SC. The specially-equipped B-66's of the 42nd ECS and their aircrews were sent directly to Southeast Asia, being assigned to the 41st Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron (TEWS), Takhli Royal Thai AFB (RTAFB) Thailand.

Bruntingthorpe was eventually returned to the RAF. RAF Chevelston is still nominally under American control, however only a small USAF housing area exists there today.

RF-4C Era

McDonnell RF-4C-24-MC Phantom II of the 1st Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron 14 August 1971. This aircraft was retired to AMARC in March 1992.

At Alconbury the 10th TRW retained the 1st and 30th TRS's with their RB-66s until May 1965 when it began conversion to the RF-4C Phantom. The 10th TRW expanded on 15 August 1966 by the addition of the 32nd TRS. This squadron had formerly flown RF-101 Voodoos with the 66th TRW at Laon-Couvron Air Base, France but was now equipped with RF-4Cs, becoming the third tac recon squadron at RAF Alconbury.

In the mid-1960s the Tail Code concept was adopted by the Air Force to identify its aircraft although never painted on planes until after 1970. At Alconbury, the codes "AR", "AS" and "AT" were established for the 1st, 30th and 32nd TRS's initially, however this was discarded in 1971. After that, all Alconbury assigned aircraft carried "AR" on their tails. 10th TRW squadrons were distinguished by a small coloured stripe on the tip of the tail - 1 TRS (blue), 30 TRS (red) and the 32 TRS (yellow). In 1972, due to heavy usage of runway by these Phantoms, the runway was overhauled, during which time, the aircraft and airmen went to RAF Wethersfield to fly out their sorties. Missions from this base were highly successful, due to the diligence and hard work of all temporarily assigned personnel. This TDY assignment was to a previously closed flightline.

The advent of reconnaissance satellites made the need for tactical recon less and less necessary by the mid 1970s. This, along with the need for budget reductions caused the reduction in the numbers of front line tactical recon aircraft. In 1976, two of the 10th TRW's squadrons (32nd TRS on 1 January, 30th TRS on 1 April) were deactivated. The 1st TRS remained the only squadron providing battlefield tactical reconnaissance.

In August 1976, the 10th TRW became the parent organization for the 66th Combat Support Squadron (CSS); 819th Civil Engineering Squadron Heavy Repair (CESHR), and the 2166th Communications Squadron stationed at RAF Wethersfield. This field served as a dispersal site during wargames, in particular Able Archer 83. In addition, large amounts of War Reserve Material (WRM) designated for RAF Alconbury was stored there. RAF Wethersfield remained a satellite base for RAF Alconbury until 3 July 1990 when it was closed and handed back to the Royal Air Force.

527th Tactical Fighter Training and Aggressor Squadron

Northrop F-5E Tiger II, AF Serial No.s 73-0953, 73-0956 and 73-0985 of the 527th TFTAS in formation, 1977

In April 1976, the 10th TRW was chosen as the parent of the USAF in Europe's aggressor unit. This formed as the 527th Tactical Fighter Training and Aggressor Squadron in April 1976 and was equipped with the F-5E in May. The aircraft were originally part of an order for South Vietnam. The 527th began providing aggressor support to European-based combat units in September. It was subsequently renamed as the 527th Aggressor Squadron in 1983.

The aggressor F-5Es were painted in a variety of colourful camouflage schemes designed to mimic those in use by Warsaw Pact aircraft. Two-digit Soviet-style nose codes were applied to most aggressor aircraft. These coincided with the last two digits of the serial number. When there was duplication, three digits were used.

International conventions made it necessary for military aircraft to carry their national insignia, but the star-and-bar national insignia was reduced in size and relocated to a less-conspicuous position on the rear fuselage. The 527th's Aggressor aircraft were among the first to apply the star and bar in toned-down or stencil form, now standard on USAF aircraft.

After 12 years of intense flying, in 1988 the fleet of aggressor F-5Es of the 527th Aggressor Squadron was getting rather worn out as a result of sustained exposure to the rigours of air combat manoeuvring. There were restrictions placed on operations in which pilots were warned not to exceed a certain G-load. Some repair kits had to be devised to overcome these problems, and the estimated cost of repair of the entire fleet was beginning to exceed a billion dollars. In addition, with the appearance of a new generation of Soviet fighters, it became apparent that F-5Es could no longer adequately mimic Warsaw Pact threats.

It was decided to re-equip the squadron with F-16C Fighting Falcons and reassign the squadron to RAF Bentwaters. In return, the A-10's at Bentwaters would be reassigned to Alconbury and give the 10th a new Close Air Support (CAS) mission.

The 527th AS flew its last F-5E sortie from Alconbury on 22 June 1988. On 14 July 1988 the squadron was transferred, transitioning to F-16Cs by mid-January 1989 at Bentwaters. However, in 1990 with the collapse of the Soviet Union, the decision was made to terminate the entire USAF aggressor program. The 527th AS was inactivated in late autumn of 1990.

After the 527th was reassigned, eight of the lowest-hour F-5E's were transferred to the U.S. Navy for TOPGUN/Aggressor training at NAS Miramar, California in July 1988. The remainder were sent to storage at RAF Kemble for refurbishing. From there they were sold under the foreign military assistance program to Morocco and Tunisia in October 1989. One F-5E was thought to be retained at Alconbury for static display as a gate guard. In reality this is a plastic/fiberglass model with an authentic windscreen and canopy.

17th Reconnaissance Wing

95th Reconnaissance Squadron Lockheed TR-1A, AF Serial No. 80-1081 - 1989

The Strategic Air Command arrived at Alconbury on 1 October 1982 when the 17th Reconnaissance Wing (17th RW) was activated. The 17th RW was assigned to SAC's Eighth Air Force, 7th Air Division. The operational squadron of the 17th RW was the 95th Reconnaissance Squadron, flying the TR-1A, a tactical reconnaissance version of the Lockheed U-2. In 1992 all TR-1s were designated U-2Rs.

The arrival of the U-2 led to a large remodelling of the northern section of the airfield to accommodate these aircraft and their specialised mission. Work included the construction of five prefabricated eady Sheds, thirteen extra-wide hardened aircraft shelters, a squadron headquarters, a massive Avionics and Photography Interpretation Centre, and new concrete aprons and taxiways. In addition, in order to enusre that the 17th Reconnaissance Wing would always have a command post for its TR-1A aircraft, a nuclear-hardened command post facility was constructed with its own power plant, communications facilities, air supply, and decontamination facility to help facilitate the needs of the wing and its TR-1A aircraft in the event a World War III scenario ever occurred. During its operation, it was officially known as Building 210, but was better known by its nickname, Magic Mountain.

As the TR-1A steadily became the principal means for battlefield and tactical reconnaissance, so the demands on the RF-4C Phantoms decreased. In addition, the 1960s phantoms were increasingly costing more and more to maintain. On 1 July 1987 the RF-4Cs of the 1st Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron flew their last mission, and the squadron was inactivated on 15 January 1988. Some of its aircraft were sent to the 26th TRW at Zweibrucken AB, West Germany, while the rest went to Air National Guard units as replacement aircraft or to AMARC for storage.

10th Tactical Fighter Wing

With the withdrawal of the RF-4C's and F-5E's, the 10th TRW became the 10th Tactical Fighter Wing on 20 August 1987. Two squadrons of A-10A aircraft. The 509th and 511th TFsquadrons, were assigned to the 10th TFW, on 1 June and 1 September 1988, respectively, relocating from the 81st Tactical Fighter Wing at RAF Bentwaters.

Fairchild Republic A-10A Thunderbolt II AF Serial No. 81-0979 - 10th TFWs Wing Commander's aircraft - 1990

The A-10 had arrived in Europe in January 1979, and four squadrons were assigned to Bentwaters. It was decided that with the deactivation of the RF-4C's at Alconbury that two of the squadrons could be relocated there in a dispersal move, with the other two remaining at Bentwaters.

The constant pressure on Alconbury's main runway after nearly 35 years inevitably made it necessary for major repair work to be undertaken. Between April and November 1989 the main runway was closed and overhauled. During this period the A-10s were deployed to nearby RAF Wyton while the TR-1As were deployed to RAF Sculthorpe.

Desert Shield/Storm

With the fall of the Berlin Wall, plans were made for significant cuts in NATO forces in Europe and very soon the first rumours began to circulate about the possible closure of RAF Alconbury. Just as the cutting back process was beginning, Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990, and the Gulf War began.

Some of the first aircraft to be sent to the Gulf area were three TR-1A's from Alconbury, deploying to Taif Air Base in Saudi Arabia. 23 A-10A's of the 511 TFS deployed to Damman/King Fahd International Airport Saudi Arabia, as part of the 354th TFW from Myrtle Beach Air Force Base, South Carolina.

The 511th TFS A-10s flew no fewer than 1700 combat missions during Operation Desert Storm and played an important part in wreaking havoc on Iraqi tank forces, Scud missiles and other ground positions.

Post Cold-War Phasedown

With the end of the Cold War, the USAF presence at RAF Alconbury was gradually phased down.

On 30 June 1991, following closely on the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact and the thawing of East-West relations, the 17th Reconnaissance Wing inactivated but its subordinate unit, the 95th Reconnaissance Squadron, remained at Alconbury as the 17th Training Wing, a non-flying organization. It subsequently inactivated at Alconbury on 15 September 1993, then reactivated on 1 July 1994 as the 95th RS at RAF Mildenhall, assigned to the 55th Operations Group. The squadron provides intelligence support to produce politically sensitive real-time intelligence data vital to national foreign policy.

Magic Mountain was closed during this time as the Soviet threat had ceased to exist.

The U-2Rs were consolidated at Beale AFB California in the 9th Wing, which still deploy routinely on a TDY basis to RAF Mildenhall.[citation needed]

On 16 December 1991 the 509th TFS flew its last operational mission. The 511th TFS's last mission was on 27 March 1992. Throughout 1992, the 10th TFWs A-10 aircraft were transferred back to the United States. The 509th TFS's aircraft were sent directly to AMARC for long-term flyable storage. Some of the 511th TFS's aircraft were sent to Air National Guard units, the remainder to AMARC storage. The last aircraft departed the Alconbury runway on 18 December. Both fighter squadrons were inactivated on that date.

10th Air Base Wing

On 31 March 1993, the 10th TFW was redesignated the 10th Air Base Wing, acting as the host unit for the special operations organizations.

On 1 December 1992, the 39th Special Operations Wing arrived at Alconbury, consolidating its units from RAF Woodbridge and Rhein Main Air Base, Germany. After consolidating its aircraft and people at the base, the 39th SOW inactivated, and the 352nd Special Operations Group activated, linking the unit's heritage with a historic World War II commando unit. The 352nd SOG consisted of the following squadrons:

7th Special Operations Squadron (MC-130H)

21st Special Operations Squadron (MH-53J)

67th Special Operations Squadron (MC-130N/P)

321st Special Tactics Squadron

352nd Special Operations Maintenance Squadron

The 352d conducted both fixed and rotary-wing operations, as well as search and rescue missions in the European and Southwest Asian Theaters.

In May 1993, as part of the drawdown of American forces in Europe, it was announced that activities at Alconbury would be reduced. The 10th Air Base Wing was inactivated 1 October 1994. To maintain the unit's heritage, the Air Force moved the 10th Air Base Wing flag to the United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado, on 1 November 1994 where it exists today. In its place, the 710th Air Base Wing (ABW) was activated as the host unit on RAF Alconbury.

The 352nd Special Operations Group and its associated aircraft, the MC-130H, MC-130P and MH-53J Pave Low, transferred to RAF Mildenhall on 17 February 1995. This ended active USAF flying operations at RAF Alconbury.

The airfield area and associated infrastructure were returned to the British Ministry of Defence by the USAF on 30 September 1995. The main base support areas (the portion of the base containing activities such as housing, base exchange, comissary, financial institutions, administrative and support offices) were retained under USAF control. The former airfield site of RAF Alconbury is now administered by Alconbury Developments Limited.

423d Air Base Group

On 12 July 1995, the 710th ABW was inactivated and the 423d Air Base Squadron at RAF Molesworth assumed the host unit role at Alconbury as well as RAF Upwood.

In July 2005, the 423d ABW was redesignated as the 423d Air Base Group and its headquarters and mission was moved to RAF Alconbury.

The 501st Combat Support Wing (501 CSW) was reactivated on 22 March 2005 at RAF Mildenhall. Its mission was the administering the various geographically separated units in the UK. On 1 May 2007, the wing moved to RAF Alconbury.

Directions

RAF Alconbury can be reached by driving on the A1 (M) to Exit 14 (B1043) at Alconbury. Proceed on the B1043, following the Red/Black RAF Alconbury Signs around the traffic circle. The airfield portion was closed by the MOD in 1993 and is now private property. The station portion is just south of Little Stukely on the east. It is an active military station and access is restricted.

Aquarius Club

Beginning in the 1960s, the Airman's Club at RAF Alconbury was considered to be one of the best nightclubs in the United Kingdom. It became known as the "Aquarius Club". In the mid-1960s main line entertainers often performed there. By the mid-1970s, the "AQ Club", as it was also known, was considered to be one of the finest disco dance clubs.

Each Friday and Saturday night two or three busloads of ladies, primarily from the local Huntingdon area, but also from the Northamptonshire towns of Kettering and Corby...the "Corby Commandoes"*... would be allowed on the base to go to the club and socialize with the young and virile American Airmen of RAF Alconbury in a cultural exchange at the club. Ladies had a night of enjoyment for 50 pence in roundtrip bus fare. Quite a few ladies were regular visitors, however, each weekend new ladies would arrive.

Normally the club would be standing-room-only with men and women in their early though late twenties enjoying the disco music, pizza, slot machines, beer, cocktails, and very attractive members of the opposite gender in an environment that matched the best clubs in London at the time. There was a yearly membership charge to Airman but there was never a cover charge to enter the Aquarius Club and the prices of food and drink were much less than one would pay in London.

Many single men and women met their future spouses at the Aquarius club. Although the Alconbury NCO Club also had music and dancing, the environment at the Aquarius Club was more geared towards the single Airmen and was much more fast-paced. The ratio of women to men was normally two-to-one on weekends.

The term "Commandoes" comes from origins surrounded in legend. As the legend goes,entrance to the AQ was for a fee that was usually paid for by the gentleman who signed to escort a particular young lady. Before the signing in was required, the first 50 ladies were allowed into the club for free. This created a mad rush to be one of the first into the club. It is alleged that one evening, one airman saw the bus arrive and the ladies were fighting to get into the club. This airman said to his buddy, "Look at them, they look like a bunch of commandoes."

See also

United States Air Force portal

List of RAF stations

Chalgrove Airfield

Notes

^ Fletcher, Harry R. (1989) Air Force Bases Volume II, Active Air Force Bases outside the United States of America on 17 September 1982. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0912799536

^ Mauer, Mauer (1969), Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II, Air Force Historical Studies Office, Maxwell AFB, Alabama. ISBN 0892010975

References

Military of the United States portal

  

^ Fletcher, Harry R. (1989) Air Force Bases Volume II, Active Air Force Bases outside the United States of America on 17 September 1982. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0912799536

^ Mauer, Mauer (1969), Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II, Air Force Historical Studies Office, Maxwell AFB, Alabama. ISBN 0892010975

Maurer, Maurer. Air Force Combat Units Of World War II. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office 1961 (republished 1983, Office of Air Force History, ISBN 0-912799-02-1).

Ravenstein, Charles A. Air Force Combat Wings Lineage and Honors Histories 19471977. Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Office of Air Force History 1984. ISBN 0-912799-12-9.

Fletcher, Harry R. (1989) Air Force Bases Volume II, Active Air Force Bases outside the United States of America on 17 September 1982. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0912799536

Freeman, Roger A. (1978) Airfields of the Eighth: Then and Now. After the Battle ISBN 0900913096

Freeman, Roger A. (1991) The Mighty Eighth The Colour Record. Cassell & Co. ISBN 0-304-35708-1

Martin, Patrick (1994). Tail Code: The Complete History of USAF Tactical Aircraft Tail Code Markings. Schiffer Military Aviation History. ISBN 0887405134.

Rogers, Brian (2005). United States Air Force Unit Designations Since 1978. Hinkley, England: Midland Publications. ISBN 1-85780-197-0.

USAAS-USAAC-USAAF-USAF Aircraft Serial Numbers1908 to present

Alconbury. RAF Bomber Command 60th Anniversary.

British Automobile Association (AA), (1978), Complete Atlas of Britain, ISBN 0-86145-005-1

External links

Photographs of RAF Alconbury from the Geograph British Isles project

Historic Alconbury photo gallery

Historic Brampton Grange photo gallery

93rd Bombardment Group (Heavy)

92nd Bombardment Group (Heavy)

95th Bombardment Group (Heavy)

482nd Bombardment Group (Heavy)

85th Bomb Squadron

10th Air Base Wing, USAFA

RAF Alconbury entry at GlobalSecurity.org

17th Training Wing

95th Reconnaissance Squadron entry at GlobalSecurity.org

Alconbury Developments Limited

Aerial Photo of RAF Alconbury from Multimap.Com

"Lamberts Luftwaffe" Members of the 10th AMS Barracks Rats in the late 70s

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Getting a Phone Number

We live in a society that is both more open and more frightened than any that has ever existed before. In the United States, the idea of the chaperone has become a quaint part of our history. What we've forgotten is that a chaperone served a very distinct purpose: A chaperone allowed two people to get together, while keeping an eye on things. Sure, you couldn't hold hands, or kiss, or - heaven forbid - do anything more intimate without being tsk-tsked to kingdom come, but it also meant that you didn't have to worry about improper or uncomfortable advances or fret that your date would interpret your intentions as less than honorable.

Having a chaperone along on a date may have felt restrictive, but it also meant safety. Today that restriction - and that safety - are gone. Now you're faced with the same urge to merge but with few guidelines and no one, other than yourself, for protection.

If the two of you are ever going to have a date, you have to be able to connect. Of course, you could agree to meet on a specific street corner or at a party or restaurant or after a class. But sooner or later, it will occur to one of you that being able to get in touch if plans should change would be nice - and that means a more personal way to connect, and that means a phone number.

Getting a phone number means that the two of you have moved from being strangers to at least being acquaintances, and that can be a very large and somewhat scary first step. To compound the problem, men and women have different senses of times and different sensibilities. Men often feel they have to ask for a number even when they have no interest, and women often feel they have to give out a number even if they have no interest. To help you, this chapter covers how to both get and give a phone number - with the minimum wear and tear on both of you. It also covers what to say during the call, and if you're hesitant to hand out your home phone number, you can also find phone number alternatives.

Asking for a Number
Whether you were introduced by friends, ran into one another on the street, or met at a party, unless you believe that the two of you share a karma that will cause you to run into one another again and again, you're either going to have to depend on blind fate or you're going to have to get a number: a home phone number or a cell number (a great option because it allows you to give out a number without having to transpose one of the last digits for someone you don't really want to give your phone number to.) If you really don't want to give a phone number, don't do it. Give a street address, an e-mail address, a business card, or something. (I know there's always the mutual friend route, but you're not in 7th grade any more - I hope. Plus, if you contact the other person directly, you get a lot more - and more reliable - information.)

There are only a limited number of reasons why you might ask for a phone number:
1. You want to call the person.
2. You're not sure whether you want to call the person but want the number just in case.
3. You know you don't want to call, but you don't want to appear rude. The following sections give you tips for handling each of these scenarios.

You want to get in touch with the person
When you know you want to call someone, obviously you need to ask for the phone number. One of the best ways to approach getting someone else's number is to demonstrate your good faith and to show that you're not Jack or Jacqueline the Ripper:
1. Smile, talk softly, and make eye contact. See Chapter 7 to find out how to approach someone without scaring the daylights out of them.
2. Ask for the number in a friendly, nonthreatening way. For example, instead of saying, "So, can I have your number?" try something like, "I'd really like to stay in touch. Is there a number where I can reach you?" Giving out your phone number if you want to is certainly okay, but doing so puts you in the position of waiting for his call. The best way to offset this position of passivity is to ask for his number as well. Or you can take his and not give yours. (Of course, if you have no intention of calling him, don't ask for the number. It's just as nasty for you to ask for his number and not call as it is for him to ask for your number and then not call you.) See the section "Giving Your Phone Number" later in this chapter for advice on how to take an active role in getting together.
3. Offer your own number. Offering your number is a great way to deflect suspicion by putting the proverbial ball in the other person's court. Offering rather than asking also allows you to be vulnerable first. You can win sensitivity points by saying, "Look, I know these days, a gorgeous woman like you has to be careful, so if you would prefer, I can give you a way to get in touch with me. I'd love to court you the old-fashioned way and call you, but I don't want to make you feel uncomfortable by asking you to give me your number if you're not ready."

You want to keep your options open
In a perfect world, you could actually say, "I'm not sure I want to call you, but, what the heck, give me your number just in case." Of course, a line like that isn't exactly flattering. You're probably better served by expressing an interest but giving yourself an out by saying something like this:

"Look, I'd really love to call you, but I'm . . . (pick one)
*really busy at work
*traveling a lot
*getting out of a relationship
*covered with herpes
*feeling poorly (not poor, which means you're in the midst of pecuniary strangulation)
*scheduled for surgery
*about to be drafted

Advice from the animal kingdom
Yes, even at our most well-behaved, we're still animals - human animals, but animals nonetheless. As a result, the same rules that apply to the larger animal kingdom sometimes apply to us. Lionel Tiger, an anthropology professor who has done a lot of work on animal behavior, reports that, to show that their intentions are honorable, animals bare their necks, the most vulnerable part of any animal's body. Where do you think we got the phrase "Go for the jugular (vein)"? And you thought it came from a Dracula movie. Therefore, the best way to show how honorable your intentions are is to bare your neck metaphorically: In other words, to get a phone number, offer your own.

. . . so if it's okay, I'd like to take your number and call you in a month or so." (Of course, if you use the herpes line, don't expect them to be too enthusiastic.)

When you take this approach, you're not misleading anyone or setting the other person up to hang by the phone waiting for you to call. You're simply keeping your options open without doing so at someone else's expense.

If you're feeling really ambivalent about asking for a phone number, you can always offer yours, saying, "Why not take my number?" Then if the other person calls, you can go out on his or her nickel and enthusiasm. After all, all of us like to be courted.

You're not interested in the other person, but you feel it's expected of you to ask for a number
If you're not interested, don't ask for the number. If you ask for a number, the assumption is that you intend to use it. Don't spread misery like peanut butter. If you have absolutely no interest in the other person and have no intention of calling, just don't ask.

Men especially feel that not asking for a phone number is really rude, but if you can just confine yourself to "See you around" or "Nice seeing you again," you'll spare yourself and the other person some wear and tear.

When not to "cell"
Somehow cell phones have allowed folks to forget basic manners and common sense. If the following list of times not to use cell phones doesn't seem absurdly obvious and straightforward to you, you need a basic attitude adjustment. If the list seems like silly fun and you suspect that my tongue is parked firmly in my cheek - bingo!
1. At a wedding
2. At a funeral
3. At the altar
4. On a date
5. During sex
6. In the shower
7. When comforting someone who is crying
8. When celebrating birthdays or anniversaries
9. When breaking up
10.When making up

Giving Your Phone Number
You've been enjoying the conversation (or not), have been flattered by the attention (or not), and now you're in the spotlight: Your phone number has been requested or his/her phone number has been offered. Now, whether you're wildly euphoric or praying that the floor will open and swallow you whole, you have to respond.

If someone wants to contact you, you may be tempted to give your phone number for these reasons:
1. You want him or her to get in touch.
2. You're not sure that you're interested, but you want to keep your options open.
3. You wouldn't spit on him if he were on fire, but you don't want to appear rude.

The following sections help you maneuver gracefully through these scenarios.

You'd like to see the person again

If you're interested and want to stay in touch, give out your number, but also get the other person's number. If you only give your number and don't get a waiting for a call. So make a deal. Say, "I'd love for you to have my number, and I'd love to have yours as well." Exchanging numbers has the following benefits:
1. You can give the other person a jingle if he/she doesn't call on your timetable.
2. You don't have to be passive or nasty, just a co-equal. No more waiting around for a call, and no more fuming because you never heard from Prince or Princess Charming again.
3. If the person turns out to be a bozo, you have something to fantasize about pasting on bathroom walls - "For a good time, call. . . ." (But don't do it! Paybacks can be really harsh.)

You're not sure whether you're interested
When you're not sure that you want the person to call, you can always say you're about to change your number because you've received too many hang-ups; the number used to belong to an escort service; or you want a cuter number.

If you decide that you want to give out your number and then, upon reflection, decide that it was a mistake, you can get an answering machine or a call block machine so that you can screen your calls. If it turns out that the person is more persistent than you'd like, you can change your number.

Another alternative if you're not sure whether you want to give out your phone number is to get the person's number instead. Of course, doing so means you have to call the person. (See the section "Asking for a Number" earlier in this chapter to find out why.)

Don't ask for a phone number as a defensive measure, as in, "I don't want you to have my number, but if I ask for yours, you'll be less intense about getting mine." Then you're just being creepy.

No way, Jose
If there is no way that you'd ever want to see this person again, don't be tempted to give your number. Doing so may be easy for the short term, but it actually makes the situation more uncomfortable because you'll end up causing yourself and the other person heartache not very far down the line. Even though it's difficult, it's better not to mislead them or give false hope. If you're not interested, be (gently) upfront about it and say, "Listen, I'm going to be very busy," or "You're very nice, but I'm going through a tough time right now," or "I'm about to move," or "I'm joining the French foreign legion." The main point is don't give someone your number if you don't want the person to call you.

Don't you dare give a wrong number (and yes, deliberately mixing up any two numbers in the sequence counts as a wrong number) or your mom's - or your best friend's or an old boyfriend's - number. Come on, this is dating, not terrorism.

Home phone or not?
Many women are reluctant to give out home numbers for safety's sake and are much more willing to give out work numbers because they're not alone at work and they (generally) work during the day. Work phone numbers create their own problems, however:
1. At work other people are around, which feels safer, but it's also less private.
2. Many if not all businesses frown on personal calls during the workday. If you've been given or are giving out a work number, understand that the conversations have to be shorter than they would be if you were using a home number.

Of course, not all home phone numbers automatically eliminate these problems. Sharing your home phone number with roommates or family can limit the length of the calls. If the phone has extensions, you may find that you restrict the content as well because you never know who may be listening in.

Life-saving cells
When it comes to dating, cell phones are really lifesavers, allowing you to remain coy about home and work numbers. Giving out a home number is giving an awful lot of information to a stranger. Giving a work number may compromise you at work because when they call, the timing may be unfortunate due to lack of privacy, running afoul of company policy, or any one of a number of constraints. An operator or a voice mail may identify the name and/or address of your workplace, which may be more information than you want a stranger to have about you initially. Ta-da - cell phones to the rescue! Among other things, cell phones have caller ID and are mobile, thus not identifying any geographical location where you can be found. The disadvantage of a cell over a land line is you can't block a cell number, but you know who it is before you have to answer. Also, if someone is sneaky enough to use "restricted," you can just let it ring through to voice mail. In a worst-case stalker scenario, it's a lot easier to change your cell phone number than your home or office phone.

As long as we're talking cell phones, just a note of caution here: If there's somebody in your life who has access to your cell phone bill, your entire life will be laid out, chapter and verse. Ma Bell has single handedly wiped out adultery as we know it with the combination of itemized bills, star (*) 69, and caller ID.

Phone number alternatives
There are a number of ways to give out a phone number without actually giving out a phone number:
1. I'm listed. If you want the person to get in touch, make sure you've made the listing clear as it appears in the phone book. In many cases, though, directing someone to the phone book means you've given out your home address as well. You can be a bit suaver but if your name is
hard to spell, you may have blown the deal.
2. Business card. A business card usually has a work phone number, often a fax number, a business address, and an e-mail address. If you don't have a business card, for very little money, you can have one printed up that gives out whatever information you want to share. (You can usually get around 500 business cards for between $15 and $25 or less.) If you are self-employed or work at home, having a business card can make you feel a little more professional as well.
3. Home address. Giving out a home address is a bit risky. Of course, sooner or later, if the two of you hook up, you're very likely to exchange home addresses. The question is, sooner or later? My advice is later - when you're sure this is someone you trust to behave respectfully and appropriately after he or she knows where you live. If you have even the most minor inkling that this person may surprise you by lurking on your doorstep, trust your instinct for heaven's sake, and don't give out your address.
4. E-mail. For many folks, giving out an e-mail address is a safer alternative than giving out a phone number. Of course, you have to balance your sense of safety and your need for intimacy. I may be old-fashioned, but I think that actually hearing a voice is a nice way to begin to connect with someone.

Decoding Girl Time versus Boy Time
Girl time is quite different from boy time. When a guy asks for a girl's number, she assumes that means he's going to call on the way home from the party. She checks her machine twice an hour, has the phone company check to make sure the line is okay, and won't take a bath for fear she'll miss the call. If Mom calls to talk about Dad's surgery, she'll politely mention that she's expecting an important call and will call back.

Guys, on the other hand, will almost never call on the way home from the party or even the next day. They think it makes them look too needy. Because nobody ever calls near a weekend for a first date, the better part of a week may pass before a guy even thinks about calling. If he left the number at home or gets busy or gets a cold, well, it may be two weeks before he calls. By this time, the woman is just plain furious.

It doesn't have to be this way.

If you really like a woman, it's okay to call the next day. It's also okay to make a date. Just don't stay on the phone too long and keep the patter light.

Cool your jets a bit. You've been smart enough to get his phone number, so you can wait this one out a while. If he hasn't called in a week or so and you want to give him a ring, fine. Just keep the conversation light and short and
don't ask why he hasn't called.

Talking on the phone is a nice way to begin getting to know one another. It's personal without being overly intimate: You're at arm's - or, literally, at phone's - length from one another.

During the first conversations, keep things short and casual. Those let's-putthe- phone-on-the-pillow-and-listen-to-each-other-breathe-as-we-fall-asleep things come much, much later. So don't worry about the sweaty palms (as long as the phone doesn't slip), don't hang up, and don't try too hard.

Never make a date with a machine. Whether it's the first date or the fiftieth, unless it's an emergency, get in touch with the person mouth to ear so that you know the message has been received loud and clear.

Rules in a Nutshell
The following are the rules for getting, giving, and using phone numbers:
1. If you want a number, ask and be willing to offer your own.
2. If you don't want to see the person again, don't ask for a number and don't give a number.
3. If you're not sure, build a time frame into your response so that nobody is sitting around waiting for you to call.
4. Exchanging phone numbers is the fun, easy part, so relax a bit and don't get too involved before you've even had a first date. It's not worth the stomach acid.
5. Calling and hanging up is not okay; neither is driving by. All states now have anti-stalking laws, and they are enforced (see Chapter 27 for information on stalking). Playing games can get you into serious trouble, so don't be silly here. Plus, caller ID has made hang-ups traceable. You don't need police on your doorstep as part of your dating experience. In a nutshell, a phone is quicker than pony express, less traumatic than a telegram, more personal than e-mail, more fun than smoke signals, and the first major step toward moving from strangers to something much bigger and better.




Source by Alexander

Global Identification Card, a USAID Global Information Security Project: "GlobalIDCard"

What should and should not be included within the project scope:

1. What to do?

Such project should be able to assemble and conclude on how the National Identification Card should be established in a typical developing country such as Nigeria. In addition, the National ID Card Project should increase the management of security features, therefore enhancing tools necessary to help the host country increase an economic and security stability.  At the end of the project, participants should have allocated which area of expertise of each participant on the project; used the latest technology in ID software management development; prepared and estimated the budget and the date of delivery; put together policies regarding the project risk management. The following are the main ideas to consider during the project preparation.

The outcome of the project: A package of ID card hardware and software that should be compatible to a particular Developing Nation computer infrastructure.

Product requirement:  Very easy to install and use; and provided in both English and local language

Methods of acceptance:  The local government should delegate their representatives at Washington DC-USAID office, where they should follow all processes in creating the ID Card.

Controlling the scope of the project: The project manager should conduct the management of the project.  He/she should be able to inform to appropriate personalities for a particular action if needed, for further decisions.

Schedules:  The members of this project should consider their availability at a normal daily shift eight hours for ninety days, excluding weekends and holidays.

Resources:  Each party involved should bring or prepare all tangibles or intangibles assets to use during the project, which should be changed to quantifiable units, associated with values by the Project Manager.

Personnel:  Each participant entity involved, should bring its own personnel, at a fixed number determined by the Project Manager, in consultation with their executives.

2. What not to do

Limitations:  As soon as the product had been tested and accepted, by the local government, USA involvement in daily operations should be limited to four consultants: two technical supports from for example Microsoft/Avanade as a software company if the company wins the contract, one from USAID, one from Homeland Security Department at Washington DC office.  Their budget should be determined by USA Department of State.

Risks:  There should be an independent institution in charge of risks and management of the project.  A private independent firm such as PeopleSoft could be of a good company to this kind of work.

Project dependencies

Qualified employees:  An intensive training for people, who would be in charge of the testing, should start right the way at local government for an approximate of number decided by government representation.  The training should be done by the software company.

Precedence in similar product: Check on others National ID that may have been researched and studied in other countries for similar analysis and experience.

Social-Political affect: Examine the socio-political facts on the ground, to accommodate the practicability of National ID card.

Legal:  Examine the legality of information storage and distribution in accordance with legal rights of local citizen.

End-users: They should be the experts for the National ID card; an education plan should be examined as a part of the project plan.

Technical environment: Study the requirement of Hardware and software infrastructure, to accommodate their security.  What infrastructure needed in Developing Nation such as Nigeria, and what infrastructure needed at Homeland Security in Washington DC to support that?

Project assumptions

The uniqueness of the design:  The National ID Card would include information benefiting both the local government and the USA government for international security and global development purposes.

In house tests:  The software application created for this purpose should be ready to work before starting pilot testing at the local country.

Approval of the ID:  The approval should be sign both by a US State Department high ranking official and the Ministry in charge of Economic development at a Developing country.

Pilot tests:  Should be done at ten selected localities, with a number of citizens that should be determined by the local government.

Project constraints:

Local governments' operations launch:  This should be separated from this project; an adjacent project should be created and funded by USA and Developing Nation cooperation.

Integration with the paper files:  The preparation should include collection of data on paper file before their entry in database.  This could be simultaneously done with the information request, in person with an end-users and a citizen at an office, where all technical components should be available.

Maintenance:  The project maintenance should be the responsibility of both governments in accordance to a mutual management of operations as define in the policy for the company in charge of those operations.

There are for sure a lot of things to think about such project, and they would be discovered as soon as the actual project starts.  It would be interesting to see how it unfold!




Source by Nyagatare Valens