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Single Women Looking For Rich Men

It is no doubt that thousands of single women looking for rich men use the internet dating sites to find their dream mate. Rich men dating sites are popular because they helped thousands of women seeking wealthy men found their perfect mate. The main reasons that these single women seeking rich men are that they want to drive in expensive cars, live in luxury villas, eat in expensive restaurants, fly on private jet, and so on. All right, most of women like to date or marry wealthy men. However, each lady has her own destiny. Some ladies were born in a poor family but found rich men for marriage and became wealthy and vice verse. So, destiny is destiny, but you can change it, can't you?

Single women are drawn to these online wealthy dating sites because of the money factor. Certainly, rich men who advertise their personal ads on these dating websites have one purpose, they want to find beautiful women for relationship and marriage. No rich man can ever like to date an ugly lady. However, every woman is beautiful, unless she does not know to make her pretty and lovely. In addition, in order to win the heart from a rich guy, you must be also smart. Trust me, your intelligence is the main factor to win his heart. Wealthy men are looking for pretty women who know how to respect them and treat them well. It does not mean that you have to say "Yes" all the time. You know what I mean?

Wealthy men dating sites have connected thousands lovely women with rich men all over the world. These sites permit all singles who are searching for relationship online. So, these online dating websites are attracted to wealthy men and beautiful women who sign up themselves to find each other online. To tell you the truth, most of these male profiles are really true that they are rich, but some are not. You must understand that. So, it is recommended that you just use general dating sites to sign up a profile with. Specific wealthy dating services don't have much singles to join. However, if you use general singles dating websites, then you have more change to find a rich guy.

Most of beautiful single women dream of being swept off their feet by a rich guy who will carry them away to a life of luxury materials. However, not all ladies obtain their dream. Some of them must accept the truth that their dream is impossible. However, be patient and confident about looking for rich man online, you will get it. Every body has a dream. When it comes to love, relationship and marriage, every woman dreams of dating or marrying a wealthy and handsome guy. So, make sure your dream comes true. Don't give up. There are thousands of rich men dating women who signed up at these online dating services, take action to find one today.

Source by Tammy Johnston

Cruisin' Motorhome Rentals Relocation Deals

If you're looking for cheap and convenient motorhome or campervan hire in Australia, Cruisin' Motorhomes can assist you with one of their amazing annual relocation deals.

Relocations give you the opportunity to enjoy an economical motorhome getaway for just a small rental fee of $5.00 a day. All you have to do is relocate the vans from one of the company's branches to another and with offices in Sydney, Brisbane, Gold Coast, Hobart, Launceston and Devonport you are sure to see some of Australia's most iconic sights along the way.

"This deal is a great way to offer people a cheap holiday in one of our high quality campervans or motorhomes. We need people to relocate our vehicles and what better way to do it than give others a chance to relocate and enjoy a scenic holiday at the same time?" said Brett Lucas, manager of Cruisin Motorhomes Pty Ltd.

We offer a great deal on our wide range of campervans and rv's, it's not the campervan or rv's that you're paying for, it's the experience of seeing the most wonderful places in Australia in a comfortable motorhome. Renting a motorhome is a one-of-a-kind experience that Cruisin' Motorhomes can offer you.

Cruisin' allows its customers six days of hire at $5.00 a day and throws in some added bonuses to make the trip more comfortable and affordable. Customers travelling to Tasmania from the mainland are offered a free Ocean Recliner Seat on the Spirit of Tasmania as well as the possibility of a $200.00 fuel allowance.

"We also give our customers the option of extending the relocation by three days for a heavily discounted rental price. This allows them to see more of Australia's fantastic attractions on the way," said Brett.

Cruisin' Customers relocating from Brisbane and Sydney will witness some of Australia's most spectacular coastline. On your way to the dazzling Apple Isle stopover at magical Byron Bay with its laid back surf culture and array of things to do and see. Experience the hustle and bustle of lively Sydney and take a tour of the world-famous Harbour and Opera House. Spend the night in Melbourne and visit one of St Kilda's quirky cafes and iconic Luna Park before getting lost in one of the many shops of this fashion capital.

Cruisin Motorhomes provides the most comfortable and quality motorhome in Australia, while relocating from Brisbane and Sydney, you will be relaxed like you're just sitting at your couch or drinking a coffee on your porch while travelling and seeing wonderful places.

Touring Australia with our Australian RV rental will give you the freedom to travel at your own pace, if you are looking for a family holiday, romantic honeymoon, roadtrip with friends, or a retirement present this service is a once in a lifetime experience that you will remember for the rest of your life.

Experience a rugged ride along the famous Bass Strait before arriving in the natural oasis of Tasmania. Enjoy a scenic drive through the state's rugged north and down the wonderful east coast. Be sure to visit Freycinet on the way with its awe-inspiring views from Wineglass Bay Lookout – don't forget to take a camera! Port Arthur is an easy stopover on the route to Hobart and is a World Heritage Listed area and the largest open air museum in Australia. Here you will witness unique convict ruins and learn about Tasmania's rich history.

Arrive in Tasmania's scenic capital of Hobart and explore all the city has to offer. Drive up iconic Mt Wellington and experience amazing views from 1,271 metres high. Walk along the picturesque wharf precinct and peruse the many art galleries and cafes. Take a quick tour to Hobart's famous Museum of Modern Art (MONA) and witness Australia's largest privately funded museum. At the end of a long day of sightseeing return the motorhome or campervan to Cruisin' Head Office.

"People who relocate the motorhomes and campers love the experience. We get repeat customers every year who want to try a different relocation and enjoy the benefits of having a fantastic modern motorhome for just $5.00 a day."

If you're interested in being part of this magnificent deal call Cruisin' on 1300 44 66 85 or monitor the Cruisin Motorhome Rentals Facebook Page for updates and let your fun-filled relocation adventures begin.

Source by Katelyn

Private Jets for Sale – The Process of Buying a Private Jet

The Wright brothers may have taken us to the skies, but it was in 1964 with the introduction of the Learjet 23, that Bill Lear changed the shape of private air travel forever. Since then the concept of traveling by jet has become a reality for executive business people and the ultra wealthy individuals of the world. There are many private jets for sale around the world. From new, top of the range jets from all of the manufacturers to pre-owned jets that are considerably lower in price.

Before you embark on the journey into finding one of the private jets for sale, you should consider the following:

  • Flying Hours. A simple exercise in due diligence will proved an analysis of the amount of hours that you or people in your company fly each year. If it is over 400 hours per annum then you will be saving money by purchasing a private jet. The cost of owning a jet will can be offset against the cost that you normally pay to travel business class on a commercial airline. Do not forget to factor for hours that you spend traveling from door to door. You would be surprised at the amount of wasted business hours spent waiting in busy international airports.
  • Flying Costs. It takes a certain amount of money to keep a jet in the air every year. The absolute minimum amount that you will be able to spend per year will be about $100 000. The costs of keeping a jet active are the services, to keep them running to the standards of the FAA. The fuel costs can also be expensive and you will have to make sure that the aircraft is fully insured at all times. There is the human cost as well; good pilots do not come cheap and the more sophisticated jets require pilots to have a higher rating, which means you'll be paying a premium salary. The best way to maintain a jet is through the services of a good aircraft management company, who will manage your single jet or an entire fleet. A jet broker like L & L International will be able to advise you on the best service providers after guiding you through the process of buying a jet.
  • Flight Size. In this market, size really does count! A jet that carries between four and eight passengers will cost you in the region of $5 million dollars on average, and they are able to fly up to a range of 2 000 miles. A private jet that carries up to 10 passengers will set you back in the region of $12 million dollars and can fly up to about 3 000 miles. For the larger private and executive business jet, you can expect to pay up to $50 million dollars, but they are able to fly on intercontinental trips and can carry up to eighteen people in comfort.
  • Shop around. Do not think you can pick up a jet just anywhere. If you are buying a pre-owned jet from a private dealer, you would be well advised to check it out from every angle and inspect the paperwork very closely. The best way to buy a jet either new or used is to go through a jet broker, so your satisfaction is guaranteed.

Source by RW Goldberg

Enjoy Your Vacation in Florida Keys Fishing Resorts

Fishing is a kind of activity for catching fish. You have different types of fishing in line with the target. Commercial fishing should be for catching fish intended for sale. This is among the imperative occupations of coastal area inhabitants. Recreational fishing are often only for fun or else sport. The fish caught as of this tends to be used for food purpose by the people who participate from the fishing sport. This fun fishing game will be done in various ways. This fishing is done who have the help of rod, reel, poles and so on. Game fish is without doubt one of the wonderful games which change as per the fighting capacity. As an illustration, sail fish of offshore, small mouth bass in freshwater, coastal area snook fishing thus on. The fishes will truly fight to escape once they get attached with the fisherman. Could give thrill in the game fish. Typically the caught fish will be the released gently into the water.

Spot for fishing whether it is for recreational or game could be very necessary. The supply of a number of fish depends on the spot. Locations will be in deep sea or else fresh water. There are several services for finding it. We can search in internet for finding a great good spot. Florida Keys are coastal islands that happen to be one in every of the famous fishing spots. Florida Keys fishing resorts assist to do the fishing in its dependable way. They offer Florida Keys fishing guides so they can impart the shoppers the first tips for straightforward fishing. Florida Keys are of 4 different coral islands: Upper Florida Keys, West Keys. Middle Florida Keys, Lower Keys. The Florida Fishing charters will offer every one of the arrangements for instance accommodation, food, activities for youths and so on. Florida Keys fishing reports says Islamorada in Upper Keys may be the initial fishing place in United States of America.

Florida Keys flats fishing tactics utilized designed for fishing in deep sea. As this type of fishing for the most part include very large fishes like shark, tuna, sword fish and all that. In flat fishing anglers are employed for catching fish. Great strength & concentration is required intended for such a game fish. This is because as a result of large size of a fish, the fight could be the very strong. A flat fishing guide will certainly offer aid for the fishing process. A Florida Key fishing guide should be of qualified and experienced one. Usually big boats are going to be utilized for flats fishing game. Additionally , there are boat rental facilities inside many of these charter agencies. Big boats are going to be of technological advanced yachts which contain many of the services like bathroom, fishing accessories and so on.

Fly fishing Florida Keys will be any other kind of fishing game in inshore. This sort deals who've comparatively small fishes similar to tarpon. Small boat rental amenities are available for fly fishing. Fly fishing Florida used fly rod, artificial flies, & fly lines for catching fish. The reasons for why the Florida Keys are going to be and thus famous & foremost for spending vacations are going to be the constant tranquil atmosphere and untidy air.

Source by Sia Susan

Proposal and Agreement

Your sales team has come back with the detailed needs assessment and now the company has the opportunity to make its best shot.

In more complex sales there is a collaborative aspect to this and the efficiency in which the specialists in the company can produce their responses will very much guide the success or otherwise of the bid.

In my experience the sales person usually ends up as the unofficial chair of the project team, as he is most aware of the timelines, he has made the promise of the response, and he is most aware of the subtleties of the brief.  Everyone else other has other priorities and pulling together a successful bid, if it is complex, is quite time-consuming.

A vision for the proposal usually needs designed and this may well be designing a combination of benefits for the customer and the special features that have been built into the solution to achieve this.  This vision ideally should have the buy-in of all contributors to the bid and their departmental response should be dovetailed to the wider vision.

Often I find the best document to write first is the executive summary, as this encapsulates the salient points of the bid.  It is the only document that is closely read by all the members of the purchasing team – alongside the pricing section.  It might also be the only document that is closely read by all the members of your project team!  Getting this document tight and right guides the rest of the submission.

As mentioned in the accompanying article on needs assessment little concessions from your perspective can have a big impression on your prospective customer.  For instance managers want an easy life and want this contract to run smoothly with little worry or aggravation feeding back to them.  Offering a robust reporting system that summarises all the issues on a periodic basis provides them with a document that they can use internally to demonstrate mastery of the details of the project to their peers.  In effect you provide the performance monitoring and save them the chore of having to replicate the system.  Incidentally it also provides key data for your relationship manager to have concerns flagged up early.  Much better that he phones to warn of delivery deficiencies rather than being phoned by his counterpart to be informed of deficiencies.

The proposal document usually has several general elements to it.  These can be classified as

  • The summary document
  • The pricing document
  • Credentials materials demonstrating experience in this particular domain
  • Operational issues on the running and fulfilment of the contract including training, back-up, support, reliability, day to day management, reporting and compliance with KPIs
  • Quality materials demonstrating a commitment to excellence, safety and continuous improvement
  • Contractual issues being aired
  • Certification documents demonstrating legal and regulatory compliance to trade
  • Some other documents can personalise the submission.  Something on the personality and values of the company usually does not go amiss and also some career biographies on the key players in the fulfilment of the contract helps reassure and personalise.  I personally like to incorporate diverse photographs and relevant case histories to once again personalise and humanise the submission and subliminally demonstrate breadth of experience.

I have produced an aide memoire on responding to tenders which may be helpful for companies considering bidding for more complex work.  Ideally you need a literate wordsmith to help as spelling, punctuation, grammatical mistakes and poorly expressed sentiments can be very detrimental to the credibility of any organisation.  A thorough check for such typos is well worth the effort before document despatch.

Basil O'Fee

September 2010


Source by Basil O'Fee

Pensacola Charter Fishing

Do you want to know more about Pensacola Charter Fishing? Pensacola, Florida is located on the Gulf Coast of Florida and is very popular for charter fishing.  Florida charter fishing in Pensacola is an exciting experience.

If you want to go fishing for deep sea fishes, then Florida is the place to be. There are many companies which provide you with the option of a charter for fishing. Are you 18 or 81? It doesn't matter. Charter fishing is for everyone and everybody.

A custom charter fishing yacht called the Reel N Counters has provided to be the greatest tourist attraction in that place. Are you interested in any kind of charter trip? Don't worry. The staff of Reel N Counters is there to help you organize any charter trip you want. The boat is a 5 star charter yacht fully supplied with any kind of comfort that you can imagine.

The fishing expeditions are carried on by different charter companies, which conduct several daily expeditions. There are more than ten crafts possessed by several of these charters. This gives a wide set of opportunities to the people who want to go deep sea fishing. In fact, fishing trips extend from a half day to one full day.

These Pensacola services are leased out for the voyagers. A variety of fish such as the amberjack, mackerel, snapper and cobia are available in the deep seas and you could target them easily. These charters are responsible for supplying you with all the necessary equipments required. This is the normal procedure.

Florida charter fishing is also provided by some other charters, who provide an impressive fishing expedition for tourists who are particularly interested in "deep sea angling". For a somewhat fancy price, you will be taken on long "fishing walks". These walks range between six and eight hours.

There are several boats present to take you for these fishing walks and they are very prized as the Coast Guard has cleared them. They are also very big and can carry around eighteen passengers. When you go on this kind of tour, you are bound to find an interesting array of fish that includes several species of barracuda and sharks.

If you prefer long deep sea fishing expeditions, you are in for the treat of your life. Several of these Florida charter fishing expeditions can also extend to thirty six hours! Living facilities are not compromised for the beauty of nature. The cabins are air conditioned.

Pensacola charter fishing also provides such companies who will provide video recording for your whole expedition this is a great resort as then you can actually record your experiences for life. They do not only remain in the fleeting memory; they also stay hard bound. You can also show the daring stunts you might have achieved during your expeditions.

So what are you waiting for? Grab your holiday luggage and get ready for an exotic Pensacola Charter Fishing!

Source by Brad Riley

Dholera SIR Project- Rs. 3,000 crore sanctioned towards development of Dholera SIR

Dholera was a blueprint till the time this grant was made and infrastructure activities have suddenly paced up in the region. An activation area of 22 square kilometer has been chosen for development of trunk infrastructure work. The land for this area has been provided by Gujarat state government as a contribution towards this project.

Rs. 3,000 crore grantshas been sanctioned by theDelhi Mumbai-Industrial Corridor Corporation (DMICDC) Trust which serves as government's nodal agency or development of DMIC project.Dholera Special Investment Region is situated along the Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor and shall be the first smart city to be developed in India. It is being planned in phases with a total of three phases that shall be built over a decade each. Project completion is expected in 2040. However seeing the aggression and pace at which the developments are taking place currently, it would not be surprising to see the project beating its deadline.

Dholera shall be well connected to all major cities of Gujarat and India through rail, road and metro. A six lane expressway has been approved that shall connect Dholera SIR to Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar. A metro route spanning 100 kilometers of length is also under development and shall be built in two phases. A dedicated railway line is also being built and Dholera's nearness to the port also gives it accessibility via sea routes making it a lucrative investment option. A new international airport is also being developed at Dholera and is expected to accommodate the ever increasing passengers who currently rely on Ahmedabad airport for travelling. Ahmedabad airport is expected to get saturated by 2020 and Dholera airport shall then serve as back up for it.

A trusted source in the Gujarat state government confirmed that "it's been decided that node/city level SPVs will be formed for the project with an initial equity contribution of Rs 250 crores by the DMIC Trust. The remainder of the trust's equity will be released in tranches based on expenditure phasing of the funds released earlier. A total of around Rs 3,000 crore for the Dholera SIR Project has been sanctioned in principle. Tenders for around Rs 350 crore for flood mitigation and control and other infrastructure are expected to be announced in the next few days. The Rs 2,800 crore project for a six-lane expressway between Ahmedabad to Bhavnagar, covering the Dholera SIR area, is also expected to start in the next few months."

All necessary approvals have also fallen in place with environmental clearance for Dholera SIR being granted recently and the proposal for Dholera International Airport being cleared by civil aviation.

Things seen to be moving in desired direction and Modi's dreams shall be seen taking off within a short span.


Source by Sonia

Ways to Make Money in the Great Outdoors

Are you a nature lover?  Do you love being outdoors, even in the nastiest of weather?  Do you feel like you would rather die than work in a cubicle?  If so, you may be perfectly set up to find ways to make money living the dream and working outdoors.  There are many things you can do to get yourself out in the great wide open and soak up the sun instead of the fluorescent lighting in a stuffy office building.

Sometimes establishing yourself in an outdoor career is tough, but still possible through government organizations like the Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management.  Getting educated in these fields will definitely help your chances, and often these jobs take many years of seasonal work before you develop ways to make money in a full-time career.  But, the reward could be great if you have always wanted to be that park ranger or tour guide in a national park.

Other volunteer organizations are often a good way to get your foot in the door as you establish ways to make money out in the open air.  Greenpeace, the Peace Corps, or even private groups like the Sierra Club could be your ticket to success.  You may get an opportunity to travel to different parts of the globe as well which could be exciting as well.  Many of these groups have full paying jobs that can be had by the most dedicated people.  If you are also of the right political ilk as the leaders of these groups you will have a greater chance to establish in a career with them.

You can also venture into your own private business endeavor to find ways to make money working outdoors.  Maybe you have a love of fishing and already have a boat big enough to charter out and do fishing tours, or have the right plot of land and location for setting up a dude ranch.  No matter what the idea, you can definitely do whatever you want to keep yourself outside and make money doing it.

Regardless of which route you take toward finding ways to make money outdoors, always keep in mind no matter how hard it gets you are still not sitting in a stuffy little cubicle.  While the money may get thin, or business becomes hard to grow, you can always find that satisfaction in the simple fact that you are where you want to be.

Source by Chris Mendetta

Double Standards in Modern Politics



1. Double standards in the European Union:

1.1 Big Sharks bullies Fish

1.2 UN vs Israel

1.3 International law

2. US double standards:

2.1 Double standards at home and abroad

2.2 American exceptionalism and common criticism



One of the Noam Chomsky's books is opened with a well-known story told by St. Augustine about a pirate captured by Alexander the Great who asked him: "How dare you molest the sea?" The pirate in return, relied: "How dare y o u molest the whole world? Because I do it with a little ship only, I am called a thief; you doing the same thing with the great navy are called an Emperor".

Since the time this story took place a lot of time has passed. Yet the double standards are still applied to the same actions taken by different people. The term double standard, coined in 1912, refers to any set of principles containing different provisions for one group of people than for another, typically without a good reason for having said difference. A double standard may take the form of an instance in which certain applications (often of a word or phrase) are perceived as acceptable to be used by one group of people, but are considered unacceptable--taboo--when used by another group.

A double standard, thus, can be described as a sort of biased, morally unfair suspension (toward a certain group) of the principle that all are equal in their freedoms. Such double standards are seen as unjustified because they violate a basic maxim of modern legal jurisprudence: that all parties should stand equal before the law. Double standards also violate the principle of justice known as impartiality, which is based on the assumption that the same standards should be applied to all people, without regard to subjective bias or favoritism based on social class, rank, ethnicity, gender, religion, sexual orientation or other distinction. A double standard violates this principle by holding different people accountable according to different standards. The proverb "life is not fair" is often invoked in order to mollify concerns over double standards.

The term can be applied to politics as well. The Emperors and the Pirates still exist, they still "molest the sea" and as well as many years ago their actions are treated in different ways.

1. Double standards in the European Union: Big Sharks bullies Fish

Sometimes in the press there spring up the statements that Brussels bullies smaller member states but is often feeble towards the big ones

EU bossiness from far away Belgium will be easy to endure by comparison. But "corruption" is a complaint which dogs the new EU Bulgaria (Romania too), so it is no surprise to hear today that Brussels is threatening to suspend financial aid and retain travel restrictions on work-seekers unless Sofia does more to crack down on organised crime and other forms of corruption. The promised reforms of the judiciary are also bogged down.

Bulgaria is the EU's poorest member which is counting on 7bn worth of euros ( ?5bn-plus) to aid structural reform over the next five years, though a major road project linking the Black Sea coast to Serbia collapsed last month, according to the FT. The socialist-led government faces a no-confidence motion today.

So it's not hard to feel a bit sorry for the poor Bulgarians as they grapple with modernisation, evidently less well placed than several other recent EU entrants from the ex-Soviet bloc.

Doubly so, I think, because the EU admonition reflects a recurring habit whereby the European commission bullies smaller member states - but rarely the big ones.

Do you remember the fuss made when Jorg Haider's far right Freedom party - always dubbed neo-nazi in media-speak - made serious gains in the Austrian elections and nearly joined the coalition in Vienna in 2000?

Fourteen member states, admittedly not the EU formally, piled in to condemn Austrians, as if Haider had burned down the Reichstag.

The Portuguese and the Irish have been hammered over breaches of the eurozone's debt rules. The Danes and Irish were bullied over the "wrong" referendum results - and President Sarko was in Dublin the other day arm-twisting over the latest "No" to the Lisbon treaty.

Yet I'm stuck to remember the last time the French or German governments got threatened from Brussels - a city occupied many times by French and German armies - or the Italians got seriously hammered over its own corruption.

That has certainly eaten up a lot of EU aid south of Rome: you can see it in those half-finished motorways which come to an abrupt end (no more cash) in the middle of some Sicilian field.

Yes, I know, realpolitik requires a realistic approach to French breaches of European law or takeover rules - when did you last trying buying a French utility company? - over which there is a long list of charges dating back many years.

In Britain we not only take these rules rather literally, we gold-plate them in their domestic enactment. Health n' Safety is not something you will spot too much of in a French country market this summer.

Come to think of it, when Jean-Marie Le Pen got into the French presidential run-off against Chirac - a pretty disgraceful development - there was an embarrassed official silence.

In short, if Brussels is often feeble towards the EU big boys, wagging its stern, bureaucratic and pompous finger at the little boys looks like double standards.

1.2 UN vs Israel

The relationship between Europe and Israel is complex, tense, and historically loaded. A growing gap has developed between their political outlooks. European political actions can continue to cause Israel so many problems and harms that these in the longer run may increasingly dominate all other aspects of the relationship.

One strong gauge of Europe's negative political attitude toward Israel is its voting record in the United Nations. Another is the frequent condemnations of Israel from Brussels. A third is the financing the EU has provided for a variety of activities directed against Israel. France has been in the forefront of many European anti-Israeli initiatives.

The mood created by the political leaders of European countries toward Israeli government officials often permeates their societies. Their discriminatory attitudes are enhanced by many media, NGOs, and some churches. These factors together help build an anti-Israeli atmosphere in large parts of European society, which is expressed in opinion polls. This is often accompanied by anti-Semitic positions.

The relationship between Europe and Israel is complex, tense, and historically loaded. An increasing gap has developed between their political outlooks. At the same time, relations in areas such as trade, science, culture, and sport have continued to expand over the decades and have only been affected by the political divergences to some extent.

It is frequently claimed that when assessing European-Israeli relations, one has to attempt to establish an average of the interactions in the various fields. To consider this a balanced approach is mistaken. European political actions can continue to cause Israel so many problems and harms that these in the longer run may increasingly dominate all other aspects of the relationship.

The European Union (EU) consists of twenty-five states with a population of 460 million covering a territory of about 3.9 million square kilometers. Israel is a small country - covering a territory far less than one-hundredth of the EU's size - with a population of six million, partly surrounded by mortal enemies. Europe and Israel are not comparable entities. In view of the imbalance in power, populations, and geographic size of the two areas, an analysis must focus primarily on the much larger European side.

When looking for telling pointers in such a complex relationship, often a useful shortcut is to identify extreme attitudes. In turbulent times these become indicators of how Europe's attitude toward Israel may evolve if the world political situation deteriorates.

Analyzing extreme European attitudes is meaningful for another reason as well. It was against the Jews that Europe reached its absolute low of barbarian behavior in the twentieth century. Although Europe's current worldview is very remote from that of the 1930s, still there are several disquieting similarities with the demonizing of the Jews - mainly by Germans but also by others - before the Second World War. The focus of the defamation has shifted from the individual Jew to Israel, the Jewish state.

In the 1930s there were many Jews who closed their eyes, not wanting to see the signs of the times. In a large universe of events one can always find some positive pointers. Looking for those, while the power of Germany's Hitler regime was increasing, one could have cited the fact that in 1936 for the first time a Jew, the socialist Leon Blum, became prime minister of France. In 1939, Lodewijk Visser was appointed the first Jewish president of the Dutch Supreme Court.

These events could have been interpreted as signals of a greater acceptance of Jews even in the highest positions in various European countries. These, however, were irrelevant in the broad framework of the overall deterioration of the Jews' status in Europe.

Bayefsky stresses the relationship between anti-Israeli bias and the European desire to avoid condemning world anti-Semitism, which mainly means its high Muslim and Arab component.

One example of this occurred at the 2003 General Assembly. The issue arose of including the word "anti-Semitism" in a resolution on religious intolerance in a preamble. Ireland, which had been the lead state on the subject of religious intolerance for many years, was determined to keep mention of anti-Semitism out.

So Israel decided that it would move an amendment to add it from the floor. The Irish were unnerved. Irish Foreign Minister Brian Cowen and Israel's Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom made a deal that Israel would withdraw its threatened amendment to the resolution on religious intolerance. In exchange Ireland would introduce for the first time in UN history a resolution on anti-Semitism.

Israel was delighted by the prospect. The Irish delegation sat on the third committee, waited for the resolution on religious intolerance to pass through the committee without the mention of anti-Semitism. Then they withdrew their promised resolution on anti-Semitism. Their excuse was the lack of consensus. Among others, Ireland went to the Iranians for their support. They afterwards claimed that they were surprised at the opposition. To sum it up: there was no resolution on anti-Semitism.

The mood created by the political leaders of European countries toward Israeli government officials often permeates their societies. The EU's mindset and discriminatory attitude toward Israel is also manifested by various European ambassadors. It is unlikely that some of their statements would be tolerated concerning any other democratic country.

One of the most publicized scandals involved the former French ambassador to the UK, the late Daniel Bernard. At the dinner table in the home of then Daily Telegraph owner Lord Black, he said Israel was a "shitty little country" that had triggered the international security crisis. Bernard's remark was typical of the new anti-Semitism, in which Israel has taken the place of the Jews as the scapegoat for the world's evil.

Black's wife, journalist Barbara Amiel who is Jewish, quoted her guest without giving his name or the country he represented in a Daily Telegraph column. It did not take long until other papers revealed who Israel's undiplomatic detractor was.

Bernard's subsequent reaction gave even clearer insight into his mindset. Initially the press secretary at the French embassy said that the ambassador did not remember if he had used those words. Thereafter Bernard insisted that what he had said had been thoroughly distorted. It was reported that he - rather than addressing his own anti-Semitism - was outraged "that a private discussion found its way into the media." Zvi Shtauber, former Israeli ambassador to the UK, relates that Bernard came to the Israeli embassy afterward to apologize though publicly he had denied that he would do so.

The foregoing describes Europe's double standards toward Israel and what they have caused. One has to assess as well what should have separated Israel and Europe objectively. Only a few indicative remarks can be made.

To do so one has to define Europe's characteristics, policies, and worldviews. For Israeli strategy expert Yehezkel Dror, Europe is characterized by its focus on citizens' welfare and neglect of security risks. It is busy with current issues but does not devote adequate attention to the long-term future.

For Trigano, the EU's ambitions mainly create associations with the Napoleonic Empire because of its bureaucratic political character. He points out that every empire needs an enemy, and Europe defines itself in opposition to the policies of the nationalist American state.

Andrei Markovits, a political scientist at the University of Michigan, says: "Nobody knows what it means to be a European. It is unclear what Greeks and Swedes have in common. But one important characteristic they share is their not being American." He also observes that anti-Americanism and anti-Semitism are the only major icons shared by the European extreme Left and Right, including neo- Nazis.

The rejection of its proposed constitution by the populations of France and The Netherlands in spring 2005 has created some uncertainty about the direction the European Union may take. It is telling mainly in regard to the EU's worldview that many observers consider that a crisis in a democratic entity such as the EU may be advantageous for another democracy, Israel. This author summed it up by saying: "While past EU policies have been heavily biased against Israel, as it enters a period of disarray, EU policies may become less threatening to Israel."

1.3 International Law

The International Court of Justice

The United Nations plays an important role in the establishment of international law. Israel is confronted with many new issues where international law falls dramatically short in meeting reality. In this area as well, Israel has become an indicator of the failures of Western society.

Yehuda Blum, a former Israeli ambassador to the UN, says that some fields of international law have greatly assisted society at large. He mentions as examples the law of diplomatic relations, the Law of the Sea, and the Law of Treaties. Blum adds:

One field where international law has failed in recent years is where it relates to the use of force. Its main weakness concerns the law of war, belligerent occupation, and so forth. Since these are usually acute problems, they highlight contemporary international law's weakness.

Another major failure of international law is to cope with the recent international terrorism. International law is premised on the existence of states, which are bound by its norms. In this particular case, we are confronted with a different phenomenon: armed groups perpetrating many crimes without any state taking responsibility for their actions.

There is often no possibility to hold any particular state accountable for these actions. Al-Qaeda is like an octopus, which has spread its tentacles all over the world. It was headquartered in Afghanistan where it has been disposed of. International law has been unable to develop the necessary adjustments to this novel situation.

Blum adds that for many decades the Europeans have been unwilling to confront the new reality of terrorism. "It started with hijacking of planes and the kidnapping of their passengers in 1969. At that time because it was an El Al airliner, there was little concern among the Europeans about the outcome." He adds that Israel has been at odds with Europe on matters concerning international law for several decades. "I think that the major sticking point in our relationship with the Europeans is their lack of ability or willingness to understand the perils of the current situation."

Two Types of International Law

International lawyer Meir Rosenne, former Israeli ambassador to the United States and France, expresses an even stronger opinion: "There are two types of international law. One is applied to Israel, the other to all other states. This comes to the fore when one looks at the way Israel is treated in international institutions."

He observes:

One finds this attitude also in many aspects of customary practice. In 2004 at the Athens Olympics the International Olympic Committee did not commemorate the murder of the eleven Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics. A private ceremony of the Israeli ambassador to Greece in Athens was all there was. The president of the Olympic Committee attended, but not the Olympic Committee as such. And this was their attitude despite what happened on September 11, 2001.

Rosenne mentions as a typical example of international law's double standards the 2004 International Court of Justice advisory opinion on the Israeli security fence. "In its judgment the Hague court decided that the inherent right of self-defense is enforced only if one is confronted by a state. If this were true, that would mean that whatever the United States undertakes against Al-Qaeda is illegal. This cannot be considered self-defense under Article 51 of the UN Charter because Al-Qaeda is not a state."

2. US double standards at home and abroad

2.1 Double standards at home and abroad

The Bush administration is attempting to soothe the Turkish government's apoplectic reaction to the House Foreign Affairs Committee's label of "genocide" on Turkey's slaughter of 1.5 million Armenians, which occurred almost a century ago. The administration fears that an enraged Turkish ally, already threatening to invade northern Iraq in order to suppress armed Turkish Kurd rebels seeking refuge there, will also cut off U.S. access to Turkish air bases and roads used to re-supply U.S. forces in Iraq. The administration essentially wants to allow the Turks to continue to deny a historical fact that preceded even the existence of the current Turkish system of government.

Similarly, the United States has never been too enthusiastic about criticizing Japan's denial of having used Chinese and South Korean women as sex slaves (so-called "comfort women") during World War II. More generally, the United States never really says too much when the current Japanese government regularly tries to whitewash in school textbooks the atrocious conduct of the Imperial Japanese regime before and during World War II. Again, a principal ally who does not face up to important historical facts is not reproved.

Yet the administration is still repeatedly bringing up Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's December, 2005 denial of the historical fact of the Jewish holocaust at the hands of the Nazis. That's because the U.S. government chooses to get along a lot less with the Iranian government (than it does with the governments of Turkey and Japan); because Israel, Iran's nemesis, is a U.S. ally; and because the administration can win points with its domestic Israeli lobby.

In the same vein, the administration is supposed to be supporting the expansion of democracy overseas--that's why the United States invaded Iraq, right?--but does so only in less friendly countries, not close allies. The United States has pressured weaker Arab countries near Israel to hold elections and make democratic reforms, for example, among the Palestinians and Lebanese, but it has not pressured Israel to remove the second-class citizenship of the Arab population living within its borders. The administration has aided opposition forces in Iran, even though the groups don't want the support, while making only half-hearted attempts to democratize its autocratic allies in Pakistan, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia. Of course, the United States doesn't really need to coddle despotic regimes just to win their lukewarm support for the "war on terror," their promise not to attack Israel, or their agreement to pump oil which their own economic interest would cause them to sell on the world market anyway. But neither does it need to meddle in the internal affairs of adversaries, such as Syria and Iran.

But if the United States were to have the same standard for all countries--both friend and foe--and join the international community in identifying and strongly condemning all documented cases of genocide, other war crimes, and repressive behavior by all countries, then perhaps there would be a chance that history might not be repeated.

First though, the United States needs to clean up its own act. Other countries may have acted terribly in the past, but U.S. citizens should not be blinded to the sins of their own government. Since World War II, in terms of numbers of military adventures, the United States has been the most aggressive country in the world. And many such interventions cannot be blamed on the need to combat international communism. Even after the United States' major foe--the Soviet Union--collapsed, the U.S. expanded its informal empire and stepped up military activities across the globe. The United States bombed Serbia and Kosovo; invaded Panama, Afghanistan, and Iraq (twice); and intervened in Somalia, Haiti, and Bosnia. Furthermore, the United States has kidnapped people and illegally rendered them to secret prisons in countries where torture is perpetrated, or simply had the CIA or U.S. military do the honors. These prisoners have been denied both the rights of prisoners of war and the rights of the accused that the U.S. Constitution guarantees--for example, their right to challenge detention using a writ of Habeas Corpus. It's likely that a substantial portion of these inmates are innocent.

If the United States is going to criticize other countries' behavior, both historical and current, it should eliminate the double standard at home and abroad, and clean up its own act first.

2.2American exceptionalism and common criticism

American exceptionalism is the theory that the United States occupies a special niche among the nations of the worldin terms of its national credo, historical evolution, political and religious institutions and unique origins. The roots of the belief are attributed to Alexis de Tocqueville, who claimed that the then-50-year-old United States held a special place among nations, because it was a country of immigrants and the first modern democracy.

The theory of American exceptionalism has a number of opponents, especially from the Left, who argue that the belief is "self-serving and jingoistic" (see slavery, civil rights and social welfare issues, "Western betrayal", and the failure to aid Jews fleeing the Nazis), that it is based on a myth, and that "[t]here is a growing refusal to accept" the idea of exceptionalism both nationally and internationally.

Criticism of United States foreign policy encompasses a wide range of sentiments about its actions and policies over time.

· Support of dictatorships. The US has been criticized for supporting dictatorships with economic assistance and military hardware. Particular dictatorships have included Musharraf of Pakistan, the Shah of Iran, Museveni of Uganda, the Saudi Royal family, Maoist regimes in China,warlords in Somalia, President Museveni of Uganda.

· Opposition to independent nationalism. The US has been criticized by Noam Chomsky for opposing nationalist movements in foreign countries, including social reform.

· Interference in internal affairs. The United States was criticized for manipulating the internal affairs of foreign nations, including Guatemala, Chile, Cuba, Colombia, various countries in Africa including Uganda.

· Support of Israel. The US has been accused of condoning actions by Israel against Palestinians.

· Democracy promotion. Some critics argue that America's policy of advocating democracy may be ineffective and even counterproductive. In World On Fire, Yale professor Amy Chua suggested that promotion of democracy in developing countries is not always a good idea since it may result in breeding ethnic hatred and global instability. Zbigniew Brzezinski declared that "[t]he coming to power of Hamas is a very good example of excessive pressure for democratization" and argued that George W. Bush's attempts to use democracy as an instrument against terrorism were risky and dangerous. Analyst Jessica Tuchman Mathews of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace agreed that imposing democracy "from scratch" was unwise, and didn't work. Realist critics such as George F. Kennan argued U.S. responsibility is only to protect its own citizens and that Washington should deal with other governments on that basis alone; they criticize president Woodrow Wilson's emphasis on democratization and nation-building although it wasn't mentioned in Wilson's Fourteen Points, and the failure of the League of Nations to enforce international will regarding Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Imperial Japan in the 1930s. Realist critics attacked the idealism of Wilson as being ill-suited for weak states created at the Paris Peace Conference. Others, however, criticize the U.S. Senate's decision not to join the League of Nations which was based on isolationist public sentiment as being one cause for the organization's ineffectiveness.

· Imperialism. According to Newsweek reporter Fareed Zakaria, the Washington establishment has "gotten comfortable with the exercise of American hegemony and treats compromise as treason and negotiations as appeasement" and added "This is not foreign policy; it's imperial policy." Allies were critical of a unilateral sensibility to US foreign policy, and showed displeasure by voting against the US in the United Nations in 2001.

· Hypocrisy. The US has been criticized for making statements supporting peace and respecting national sovereignty, but military actions such as in Grenada, fomenting a civil war in Colombia to break off Panama, and Iraq run counter to its assertions. The US has advocated free trade but protects local industries with import tariffs on foreign goods such as lumber and agricultural products. The US has advocated concern for human rights but refused to ratify the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The US has publicly stated that it is opposed to torture, but has been criticized for condoning it in the School of the Americas. The US has advocated a respect for national sovereignty but supports internal guerrilla movements and paramilitary organizations, such as the Contras in Nicaragua.The US has been criticized for voicing concern about narcotics production in countries such as Bolivia and Venezuela but doesn't follow through on cutting certain bilateral aid programs. The US has been criticized for not maintaining a consistent policy; it has been accused of denouncing human rights abuses in China while supporting rights violations by Israel. However, some defenders argue that a policy of rhetoric while doing things counter to the rhetoric was necessary in the sense of realpolitik and helped secure victory against the dangers of tyranny and totalitarianism. Another agrees.

· Undermining of human rights. President Bush has been criticized for neglecting democracy and human rights by focusing exclusively on an effort to fight terrorism. The US was criticized for alleged prisoner abuse at Guantanamo Bay, Abu Ghraib in Iraq, secret CIA prisons in eastern Europe, according to Amnesty International. In response, the US government claimed incidents of abuse were isolated incidents which did not reflect U.S. policy.

· American exceptionalism. There is a sense in which America sometimes sees itself as qualitatively different from other countries and therefore cannot be judged by the same standard as other countries; this sense is sometimes termed American exceptionalism. A writer in Time Magazine in 1971 described American exceptionalism as "an almost mystical sense that America had a mission to spread freedom and democracy everywhere." American exceptionalism is sometimes linked with hypocrisy; for example, the US keeps a huge stockpile of nuclear weapons while urging other nations not to get them, and justifies that it can make an exception to a policy of non-proliferation. When the United States didn't support an environmental treaty made by many nations in Kyoto or treaties made concerning the Geneva Convention, then critics saw American exceptionalism as counterproductive.

· Arrogance. Some critics have thought the United States became arrogant, particularly after its victory in World War II. Critics such as Andrew Bacevich call on America to have a foreign policy "rooted in humility and realism." Foreign policy experts such as Zbigniew Brzezinski counsel a policy of self-restraint and not pressing every advantage, and listening to other nations. A government official called the US policy in Iraq "arrogant and stupid," according to one report.

· Excessive militarism. In the 1960s, Martin Luther King Jr. criticized excessive U.S. spending on military projects. and suggested a linkage between its foreign policy abroad and racism at home. Even in 1971, a Time Magazine essayist wondered why there were 375 major foreign military bases around the world with 3,000 lesser military facilities and concluded "there is no question that the U.S. today has too many troops scattered about in too many places." In a 2010 defense report, Cordesman criticized out-of-control military spending. Expenditures to fight the War on Terror are vast and seem limitless. The Iraq war was expensive and continues to be a severe drain on U.S. finances. Bacevich thinks the U.S. has a tendency to resort to military means to try to solve diplomatic problems. The Vietnam War was a costly, decade-long military engagement which ended in defeat, and the mainstream view today is that the entire war was a mistake. The dollar cost was $111 billion, or $698 billion in 2009 dollars. Similarly, the second Iraq war is viewed by many as being a mistake, since there were no weapons of mass destruction found, and the war continues today.

· International law violations. Some critics assert the US doesn't always follow international law. For example, some critics assert the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq was not a proper response to an imminent threat, but an act of aggression which violated international law. For example, Benjamin Ferencz, a chief prosecutor of Nazi war crimes at Nuremberg said George W. Bush should be tried for war crimes along with Saddam Hussein for starting aggressive wars--Saddam for his 1990 attack on Kuwait and Bush for his 2003 invasion of Iraq. Critics point out that the United Nations Charter, ratified by the U.S., prohibits members from using force against fellow members except against imminent attack or pursuant to an explicit Security Council authorization. A professor of international law asserted there was no authorization from the UN Security Council which made the invasion "a crime against the peace." However, US defenders argue there was such an authorization according to UN Security Council Resolution 1441.

· Commitment to foreign aid. Some critics charge that U.S. government aid should be higher given the high levels of Gross domestic product. They claim other countries give more money on a per capita basis, including both government and charitable contributions. By one index which ranked charitable giving as a percentage of GDP, the U.S. ranked 21 of 22 OECD countries by giving 0.17% of GDP to overseas aid, and compared the U.S. to Sweden which gave 1.03% of its GDP, according to different estimates. The U.S. pledged 0.7% of GDP at a global conference in Mexico. According to one estimate, U.S. overseas aid fell 16% from 2005 to 2006. However, since the US grants tax breaks to nonprofits, it subsidizes relief efforts abroad, although other nations also subsidize charitable activity abroad. Most foreign aid (79%) came not from government sources but from private foundations, corporations, voluntary organizations, universities, religious organizations and individuals. According to the Index of Global Philanthropy, the United States is the top donor in absolute amounts.

· Environmental policy. The Kyoto Protocol treaty was an effort by many nations to tackle environmental problems, but the U.S. was criticized for failing to support this effort in 1997.The U.S. has been criticized for failure to support the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.

Critics charge that savvy dictators such as Uganda's president Yoweri Museveni have manipulated U.S. foreign policy by appealing to its need to fight terrorism. Others suggest U.S. should adopt a policy of realpolitik and work with any type of government who can be helpful.

· Other criticisms. The U.S. has been criticized for its historical treatment of native Americans. For example, the treatment of Cherokee Indians in the Trail of Tears in which hundreds of Indians died in a forced evacuation from their homes in the southeastern area, along with massacres, displacement of lands, swindles, and breaking treaties. It has been criticized for the war with Mexico in the 1840s which some see as a theft of land. It was the first and only nation to use a nuclear bomb in wartime. It failed to admit Jews fleeing persecution from Europe at the beginning of World War II, as well as immoral policy for the Vietnam War.

· Lack of vision. Brzezinski criticized the Clinton presidency as having a foreign policy which lacked "discipline and passion" and subjected the U.S. to "eight years of drift." The short-term election cycle coupled with the inability to stick with long term decisions motivates presidents to focus on acts which will appease the citizenry and avoid difficult long-term choices.

· Presidency is over-burdened. Presidents have not only foreign policy responsibilities, but sizeable domestic duties too. In addition, the presidency is the head of a political party. As a result, it is tough for one person to manage disparate tasks, in one view. Critics suggest Reagan was overburdened, which prevented him from doing a good job of oversight regarding the Iran-Contra affair. Brzezinski suggested in Foreign Affairs that President Obama is similarly overburdened. Some suggest a need for permanent non-partisan advisers.

· Dollars drive foreign policy. There are indications that decisions to go to war in Iraq were motivated by oil interests; for example, a British newspaper The Independent reported that the "Bush administration is heavily involved in writing Iraq's oil law" which would "allow Western oil companies contracts of up to 30 years to pump oil out of Iraq, and the profits would be tax-free." Whether motivated by oil or not, U.S. policy appears to much of the Arab world to have been motivated by oil. Some critics assert the U.S. decision to build the Panama Canal was motivated largely by business interests despite claims that it's motivated to "spread democracy" and "end oppression." Andrew Bacevich suggests policy is directed by "wealthy individuals and institutions." Some critics say U.S. foreign policy does reflect the will of the people, but blames the people for having a "consumerist mentality" which causes problems. In 1893, a decision to back a plot to overthrow the rulership of Hawaii by president Harrison was motivated by business interests in an effort to prevent a proposed tariff increase on sugar; Hawaii became a state afterwards. There was speculation that the Spanish-American War in 1898 between the U.S. and Spain was motivated by business interests in Cuba.

· Presidents may lack experience. Since the constitution requires no prior experience in diplomacy, government, or military service, it is possible to elect presidents with scant foreign policy experience. Clearly the record of past presidents confirms this, and that presidents who have had extensive diplomatic, military, and foreign policy experience have been the exception, not the rule. In recent years, presidents had relatively more experience in such tasks as peanut farming, acting and governing governorships than in international affairs. It has been debated whether voters are sufficiently skillful to assess the foreign policy potential of presidential candidates, since foreign policy experience is only one of a long list of attributes in which voters tend to select candidates. The second Bush was criticized for inexperience in the Washington Post for being "not versed in international relations and not too much interested."

· Presidency has too much authority. In contrast to criticisms that presidential attention is divided into competing tasks, some critics charge that presidents have too much power, and that there is the potential for tyranny or fascism. Some presidents circumvented the national security decision-making process. Critics such as Dana D. Nelson of Vanderbilt in her book Bad for Democracy and columnist David Sirotaand Texas law professor Sanford Levinsonsee a danger in too much executive authority.

· Difficulty removing an incompetent president. Since the only way to remove an incompetent president is with the rather difficult policy of impeachment, it is possible for a marginally competent or incompetent president to stay in office for four to eight years and cause great mischief. In recent years, there has been great attention to this issue given the presidency of George W. Bush, but there have been questions raised about the competency of Jimmy Carter in his handling of the Iran hostage crisis. Ironically, a president who was arguably the most skillful in foreign policy, Richard M. Nixon, was impeached, but for offenses linked with domestic politics.

· President may be incompetent. The presidency of George W. Bush has been attacked by numerous critics from both parties as being particularly incompetent, short-sighted, unthinking, and partisan. Bush's decision to launch the second Iraq War was criticized extensively; writer John Le Carre criticized it as a "hare-brained adventure." He was also criticized for advocating a policy of exporting democracy. Brzezinski described Bush's foreign policy as "a historical failure." Bush was criticized for being too secret regarding foreign policy and having a cabal subvert the proper foreign policy bureaucracy. Other presidents, too, were criticized. The foreign policy of George H. W. Bush was lackluster, and while he was a "superb crisis manager," he "missed the opportunity to leave a lasting imprint on U.S. foreign policy because he was not a strategic visionary," according to Brzezinski. He stopped the first Iraq War too soon without finishing the task of capturing Saddam Hussein. Foreign policy expert Henry Kissinger criticized Jimmy Carter for numerous foreign policy mistakes including a decision to admit the ailing Shah of Iran into the United States for medical treatment, as well as a bungled military mission to try to rescue the hostages in Teheran. Carter waffled from being "both too tough and too soft at the same time."

· Congress excluded from foreign policy. Critic Robert McMahon thinks Congress has been excluded from foreign policy decision making, and that this is detrimental. Other writers suggest a need for greater Congressional participation.

· Lack of control over foreign policy. During the early 1800s, general Andrew Jackson exceeded his authority on numerous times and attacked American Indian tribes as well as invaded the Spanish territory of Florida without official government permission. Jackson was not reprimanded or punished for exceeding his authority. Some accounts blame newspaper journalism called yellow journalism for whipping up virulent pro-war sentiment to help instigate the Spanish-American War. Some critics suggest foreign policy is manipulated by lobbies, such as the pro-Israel lobby, although there is disagreement about the influence of such lobbies. Nevertheless, Brzezinski wants stricter anti-lobbying laws.

· Alienating allies. There is evidence that many U.S. allies have been alienated by a unilateral approach. Allies signaled dissatisfaction with U.S. policy in a vote at the U.N. Brzezinski counsels listening to allies and exercising self-restraint.

· U.S. foreign policy manipulated by external forces. A Washington Post reporter wrote that "several less-than-democratic African leaders have skillfully played the anti-terrorism card to earn a relationship with the United States that has helped keep them in power" and suggested, in effect, that foreign dictators could manipulate U.S. policy for their own benefit. It is possible for foreign governments to channel money through PACs to buy influence in Congress.

· Ineffective public relations. One report suggests that news source Al-jazeera routinely paints the U.S. as evil throughout the Mideast. Other critics have faulted the U.S. public relations effort.As a result of faulty policy and lackluster public relations, the U.S. has a severe image problem in the Mideast, according to Anthony Cordesman. Analyst Mathews said that it appears to much of the Arab world that we went to war in Iraq for oil, whether we did or not. In a 2007 poll by BBC News asking which countries are seen as having a "negative influence in the world," the survey found that Israel, Iran, United States and North Korea had the most negative influence, while nations such as Canada, Japan and the European Union had the most positive influence.

· Ineffective prosecution of war. Amy Chua thinks the Iraq war has been managed inefficiently, with wasteful spending. One estimate is that the second Iraq War along with the so-called War on Terror cost $551 billion, or $597 billion in 2009 dollars. Boston University professor Andrew Bacevich has criticized American profligacy and squandering its wealth. There have been historical criticisms of U.S. warmaking capability; in the War of 1812, the U.S. was unable to conquer Canada despite several attempts and having superior resources; the U.S. Capitol was burned and the settlement ending the war did not bring any major concessions from the British.

· Problem areas festering. Critics point to a list of countries or regions where continuing foreign policy problems continue to present problems. These areas include South America, including Ecuador, Venezuela, Bolivia, Uruguay, and Brazil. There are difficulties with Central American nations such as Honduras. Iraq has continuing troubles. Iran, as well, presents problems with nuclear proliferation. Pakistan is unstable, there is active conflict in Afghanistan. The Mideast in general continues to fester, although relations with India are improving. Policy towards Russia remains uncertain. China presents an economic challenge. There are difficulties in other regions too. In addition, there are problems not confined to particular regions, but regarding new technologies. Cyberspace is a constantly changing technological area with foreign policy repercussions. Climate change is an unresolved foreign policy issue, particularly depending on whether nations can agree to work together to limit possible future risks.

· Ineffective strategy to fight terrorism. Critic Cordesman criticized U.S. strategy to combat terrorism as not having enough emphasis on getting Islamic republics to fight terrorism themselves. Sometimes visitors have been misidentified as "terrorists." Mathews suggests the risk of nuclear terrorism remains unprevented.

· Historical instances of ineffective policies. Generally during the nineteenth century, and in early parts of the twentieth century, the U.S. pursued a policy of isolationism and generally avoided entanglements with European powers. After World War I, Time Magazine writer John L. Steele thought the U.S. tried to return to an isolationist stance, but that this was unproductive. He wrote: "The anti-internationalist movement reached a peak of influence in the years just before World War II." But Steele questioned whether this policy was effective; regardless, isolationism ended quickly after the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. Analysts have wondered whether the U.S. pursued the correct strategy with Japan before World War II; by denying Japan access to precious raw materials, it is possible that U.S. policy triggered the surprise attack and, as a result, the U.S. had to fight a two-front war in both the Far East as well as Europe during World War II. While it may be the case that the Mideast is a difficult region with no easy solutions to avoiding conflict, since this volatile region is at the junction of three continents; still, many analysts think U.S. policy could have been improved substantially. The U.S. waffled; there was no vision; presidents kept changing policy. Public opinion in different regions of the world thinks that, to some extent, the 9/11 attacks were an outgrowth of substandard U.S. policy towards the region. The Vietnam War was a decade-long mistake.


1. "Europe and Hizbullah," Jerusalem Post, 15 February 2005. 
2. Manfred Gerstenfeld, interview with Dore Gold, "Europe's Consistent Anti-Israeli Bias at the United Nations," Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism, No. 34, 1 July 2005.





Source by Vasco Doves

General Knowledge Pt. XII

What is the kimberley process?

Conflict diamonds came to the attention of the world media during the extremely brutal conflict in Sierra Leone in the 1990s. The UN, governments, the diamond industry and non-governmental organizations (such as Amnesty International), recognised the need for a global system to prevent conflict diamonds from entering the legitimate diamond supply chain, which helped fund conflict. The Kimberley Process (the first meeting was held at Kimberley, South Africa in July 2000, hence the name) is a negotiating process to establish minimum acceptable international standards in the trade of diamonds from rebel-held conflict areas. Kimberly Process includes organized import and export, careful administration, combating corruption in the customs service, written invoices for diamond transactions, the presence of modern measuring and weighing instruments, and numbered and difficult-to-forge certificates. The advantages of the Kimberly system are: 1) Stemming the flow of money to rebel movements. 2) Increasing governments' transparency 3) Getting governments to keep tabs on how many diamonds they import and export and how much they are worth. 4) Facilitating a system whereby governments can be held accountable for the relationship between income and public spending.

What is a cyrus cylinder?

The Cyrus Cylinder is a clay cylinder on which a declaration issued by the emperor Cyrus II of Persia is inscribed in Babylonian cuneiform. It has been described as the world's first charter of human rights, predating the Magna Carta by more than one millennium. This has been interpreted as expressing Cyrus' respect for humanity

Which is the most pointless gadget?

In a recent survey, an electric nail file, which gives a smooth finish to nails, all for a whopping £250, was voted the most pointless gadget of all times. While laser-guided scissors which helps cut a perfectly straight line came in second, electric candles were third.

Why is the taj trapezium zone and why is it called so?

Taj Trapezium Zone (TTZ) is a defined area of 10,400 sq km around the Taj Mahal to protect the monument from pollution. The Supreme Court of India delivered a ruling on December 30,1996 regarding industries covered under the TTZ, in response to a PIL seeking to protect the Taj Mahal from environmental pollution. The SC banned the use of coal/ coke in industries located in the TTZ with a mandate for switching over from coal/ coke to natural gas, and relocating them outside the TTZ or shutting down. The TTZ comprises over 40 protected monuments including three World Heritage Sites - the Taj Mahal, Agra Fort and Fatehpur Sikri. TTZ is so named since it is located around the Taj Mahal and is shaped like a trapezoid.

What are galactic superclusters?

Each galaxy has billions of stars. Such galaxies are not uniformly spaced in the universe but exist in groups and clusters; a group containing up to 40-50 galaxies and clusters containing about thousands of galaxies. These groups and clusters along with isolated galaxies may form larger clusters known as galactic superclusters. These are the largest structures of matter found in the universe. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, is a member of a local group of galaxies, which is in turn a part of the Virgo supercluster.

What is the age of antonines?

The Age of Antonines is often referred to two successive ages of Roman emperors —Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius —who ruled between 138 AD and 180 AD and were famous for their skilled leadership. The age is also known as the transitional phase of the Roman empire, hi 138 AD, after a long reign dedicated to the cultural unification and consolidation of the empire, emperor Hadrian named his son as heir, under the condition that he adopt both Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. Hadrian died the same year, and Antoninus began a peaceful, benevolent reign, in contrast to Hadrian's wars of unification and his immediate predecessors' expansionist wars. He adhered strictly to Roman traditions and institutions and willingly shared his power with the Roman senate. Marcus Aurelius succeeded Pius after his death in 161 AD and continued his legacy as an unpretentious and gifted administrator and leader. Marcus Aurelius died in 180 AD and was followed by his son Commodus who single-handedly ended this golden age of Roman empire.

What is the golden rule?

An almost universal principle of ethics, the Golden Rule, is summarised by the phrase 'Do unto others as you would have them do unto you'. Variations in this theme recur across most religions and ethical philosophies, including Zoroastrianism, Confucianism, Jainism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, in the Mahabharata, the Book of Leviticus, in the philosophies of Kant, Mills and Rawl's Theory of Justice. Deep Ecology also recognises the Golden Rule with relation to species and ecosystems on Earth.

Where did surfing originate?

The sport of riding on the crest or along the tunnel of a wave, especially while standing or lying on a surfboard is called surfboarding. Originally developed by Hawaiian islanders before the 15th century, 'he'e nalu' spread in the early 20th century to mainland USA and Australia, where heavy timber plank boards were ridden directly towards beaches. The sport exploded in popularity in the 1950s and 1960s, when cheaper, more manoeuvrable, and lighter boards made of fiber glass and foam became available and teenaged baby boomers headed to the beaches in droves to enjoy the manoeuvrability and stunts made possible by the new boards.

Who are hippy-crites?

Hypocritical celebrities or those who espouse a cause but don't live by the principles they preach. The word hippy-crite particularly refers to those celebrities guilty of environmental hypocrisy For instance, those who complain about pollution but nonetheless use products that pollute. Hippy-crites also refer to wannabe hippies —those who claim they are hippies but don't exactly lead such a lifestyle.

What is urban mining?

Urban mining is the European fancy name for the process of making money out of garbage using sophisticated machinery Urban mining is the process of reclaiming precious and minor metals from old electronic equipment. With the soaring price of metals, such recycling of previously mined metals is lucrative — 1 tonne of ore from a gold mine produces just 5 gms of gold on an average, whereas 1 tonne of discarded mobile phones can yield 150 gms or more, according to a study by Yokohama Metal Co Ltd, a recycling firm. The same volume of discarded mobile phones also contains around 100 kg of copper and 3 kg of silver, among other metals.

What is the backwash effect?

Gunnar Myrdal in 1956 said that regional differences are the natural outcome of economic development and the inevitable result of market forces. No one region can prosper, he said, without adversely affecting the prosperity of another. Economic growth takes place initially where there are such natural advantages as a source of fuel or a supply of raw materials. Once in existence, this region of economic development sets in motion the process of cumulative causation. Myrdal called the movement of wealth from poorer regions to the central rich region the backwash effect. It takes place because of better facilities and opportunities offered by the growing region. To enhance this difference further, a rich area may flood the markets of poorer areas with cheap products. The result is an industrially expanding region on the one hand and stagnating, or even declining, region on the other. :

What is grounded theory?

Grounded Theory is described as a research method in which the theory is developed from the data, rather than the other way around. That makes it an inductive approach, meaning it moves from the specific to the general. The Grounded Theory was developed by two sociologists, Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss. Their collaboration in research on dying hospital patients led them to write the book Awareness of Dying.

How are corrective lenses made?

The lab technician selects a lensblank that has the correct segment (called an add) and a base curve close to the prescribed power. Then to make the power match the prescription exactly, another curve is ground on the back of the lens blank. In most labs, the equipment is designed to grind minus curves, so a strong, plus lens blank is usually selected. If the base curve is too strong, then a minus curve is ground in the back of the lens which reduces the total power of the lens. Corrective lenses can be made with glass or plastic. Advances in automation are rapidly changing how lenses are made. For example, the vast majority of labs now use computers to determine curve parameters and lens choice, and equipment is available that will combine several steps or even do the entire operation automatically

Can cosmic rays generate electricity?

The jury is still out on whether we can generate electricity from cosmic rays but while many feel that in theory it may be possible, in practice it could be in very small amounts, hi any case, tapping cosmic rays is a very complex engineering problem and the cost of doing so could be prohibitively high.

How do sunglasses filter ultraviolet rays?

A special clear coating is applied to the lenses, either on the front or back of the lens, or sometimes both sides. It's a transparent coating and can be applied to any colour of lens including clear. The UV-filtering effect, however, is more complex. UV-filtering lenses are coated with special chemicals that allow light to pass through them, but reflect away UV, UV rays are basically high-frequency light waves which means that the chemical structure has to be built to deflect higher frequency light while allowing through lower frequency; light. The most complicated sun-glasses are prescription sunglasses. These are sunglasses that not only protect from light and UV but also work like normal glasses to correct the eyesight. For this to work, it requires that normal vision-correction glasses are taken, tinted and coated with UV-reflecting chemicals.

Why is the spring festival celebrated?

The ancient town of Hama in Syria is well known for its Spring Festival celebrated every year for, two weeks in April. This festival had its origins in the 2nd millennium BC when it would be celebrated to offer prayers and sacriflees to Adonis, the god of fertility However, the tradition disappeared gradually over the centuries and reappeared briefly in the 1930s, with the organization of carnivals and games during April. During World War n, the festival suffered a setback, and was revived in 1998 and been celebrated annually without a break. In the local language, it's called the Muhrajan-al-Rabi and the objective is to display local customs and traditions and help preserve the heritage of Hama. The, festival is characterised by many cultural and sports activities, and bazaars selling native food, handicrafts, and textiles.

What is the supermemo?

It's software that facilitates speed learning, particularly of languages. It's based on an algorithm which calculates the precise moment when a person is likely to forget something she has learnt. The program would then remind her about going over that information once again, during those times. It was invented by Piotr Wozniak.

What is a memristor?

Memristor is claimed to be the fourth basic element to electrical circuit theory along with the capacitor, resistor and inductor. It was recently discovered in HP Labs. It's most interesting characteristic is that it remembers the amount of charge that flows through it. So, it is named as memory resistor or memristor. Researchers believe the discovery will pave the way for instantly booting PCs, more energy-efficient computers, and new analog computers that can process and associate information in a manner similar to the human brain. Also, memristors can be used as either digital switches or to build a new breed of analog devices.

What is a ghost word?

A ghost word is one that has entered the language through the perpetuation of an error. It is a term invented by lexicographer W W Skeat in 1886 to denote words that are not real words. In Transactions of the Philological Society' (1886) Skeat says, "We should jealously guard against all chances of giving any undeserved record of words which had never any real existence, being mere coinages due to the blunders of printers or scribes, or to the perfervid imaginations of ignorant or blundering editors." Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable revised by Adrian Room describes ghost words as "spurious terms, the result of errors made by authors, typists, editors, and printers, and they hardly ever become part of the language. An example of a lasting ghost word is 'dord' (meaning density) which can be found in the 1934 Merriam-Webster Dictionary second edition. 'Dord' began life as an error made in transcribing a card that read: 'D or d, meaning a capital D or small d — for density Eliminated from future Merriam-Webster editions, this ghost word lives on in the 1934 edition."

What is the prague spring?

Prague Spring refers to the period of liberalisation in Czechoslovakia from January 5,1968 to August 21,1968 under the leadership of Alexander Dubcek who controlled the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. In April 1968, agricultural and industrial reforms were instituted, a new constitution with a guarantee of civil rights and greater freedom of press was introduced with the announcement of federalization of Czechoslovakia into two nations with autonomy for Slovakia and initiation of reforms in the Communist Party and the government. However, this led to the public demanding greater reforms towards democracy The then Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries felt threatened by the likely emergence of a socialist-democratic Czechoslovakia since they felt it would weaken the Communist Bloc. On the night of August 20-August 21, 1968 armies from Soviet Union, East Germany, Poland, Hungary and Bulgaria invaded Czechoslovakia. They removed Alexander Dubcek from power and installed in his place anti-reform communists to run Czechoslovakia.

What is pixie dust?

Pixie dust is a fictional substance that is pictorially represented as a trail of a sparkling substance that follows mythical creatures such as pixies and fairies. It's also called fairy dust.

Why are planets generally spherical?

The gravitational pull of each planet basically tries to pull everything within its field toward the planet's centre, including the planet's own mass. As all areas of a planet are being pulled equally toward the centre, the planet takes a spherical shape, with all points on the surface being more or less equally distant from the centre. The smaller the planet, the weaker the gravitational pull; which is why asteroids, along with many of the smaller moons of the solar system, are not necessarily spherical in shape. Delmos, a moon of Mars, is a good example of this.

What is direct market access?

Direct Market Access (DMA) is a facility which allows brokers to offer clients direct access to the exchange trading system through the brokers' infrastructure without manual intervention by the broker. Some of the advantages offered by DMA are direct control of clients over orders, faster execution of client orders, reduced risk of errors associated with manual order entry, greater transparency, increased liquidity, lower impact costs for large orders, better audit trails and better use of hedging and arbitrage opportunities through the use of decision support tools/ algorithms for trading.

Where did the practice of sun-bathing originate?

Sunbathing has its origins in ancient civilizations. Greeks, Romans, and Sumerians considered Sun as a God, because Sun was the most powerful natural source of heat and light; as a part of Sunworship, they used to expose their bodies to sunlight. Another reason was ancient man's liking for bronzed skin, which could be easily acquired by sunbathing. In mediaeval times, however, dark skin lost its appeal because it began to be associated with the working classes, and people craved for make-up and other treatments that would make the skin look pale and white. In the beginning of the 20th century, there was a renewal of attraction for golden brown skin, especially in France. Coco Chanel, a fashion designer, and Josephine Baker, a singer, were considered responsible for triggering the resurgence of sunbathing, because their fans took a great fascination for the light brown skin they acquired by sunbathing.

Which is the earliest reality show?

The world's first reality show is Alien Funt's Candid Camera, which debuted in American television in 1948. It's considered a reality show for it involved unscripted situations involving unsuspecting people responding to pranks, which are caught on camera. It was based on a 1947-radio show called Candid Microphone.

What is a micelle?

A micelle is the cluster or aggregated particles formed by associated colloids (substances which, at high concentration, behave as colloidal solutions due to formation of micelles) in solution. Micelle formation takes place above a certain concentration called Critical Micellization Concentration (CMC) and above a particular temperature called Kraft Temperature. Every micelle system has a particular value of CMC. Micelles are primarily responsible for the cleansing action of soaps. A micelle consists of a hydrophobic hydrocarbon-like central core. The cleansing action of soap is due to the fact that soap molecules form micelle around the oil droplet in such a way that hydrophobic part of the stearate ions (from the soap solution of sodium stearate) is in the oil droplet and hydrophilic part projects out of the grease droplet like the bristles. This oil droplet surrounded by stearate ions is now pulled in water and removed from the dirty surface.

What is a shibboleth?

A shibboleth is a practice of identifying the members of a community or a clan and their social and regional origin. The term originated from the Hebrew language which literally means 'the part of the plant's. In modern usage, it is used to solve numerous conflicts between groups speaking different languages of dialects, and is also used to discover hidden members of the opposing group. Today, in English, a shibboleth has a wider meaning, referring to any 'in crowd' word or phrase that can be used to distinguish members of a group from outsiders, even when not used for a hostile purpose.

What are mocap suits?

Motion capture, or mocap, is a technique for digitally recording movement. Originally used as an analysis tool for biomechanics, mocap is now successfully employed in a wide variety of sectors including games development, advertising, events and education. Movement is captured through the placement of sensors (or markers) on or near each joint of the body As each joint moves, the positions or angles between the markers are recorded. Software records the angles, velocities, accelerations and impulses, providing an accurate digital representation of the movement. In entertainment, mocap is best known as an animation tool for films, TV and games. Not only does it save time and money but it also creates more lifelike movement than manual animation. Examples of applications include Gollum in Lord of the Rings, Polar Express and Happy Feet.

Who was called the iron chancellor?

A hundred years ago, Germany was divided into many small states, or countries. In one of these states Prussia, the chancellor, or chief minister to the king, was Otto von Bismarck. A strong and ruthless man, Bismarck made Prussia the strongest of all German states and its army feared throughout Europe. When the states were gathered into one empire in 1871, Bismarck, now a prince, and his king, now an emperor, were at its helm. Prince Bismarck continued to make the new empire stronger until he was dismissed by a new emperor in 1890. He got his nickname. 'The Iron Chancellor', when he said that Germany could only become a great power through blood andiron.

What is the e layer?

The E layer is a region of the ionosphere, extending from about 90-150 kilometres above the Earth, which influences long-distance communications by strongly reflecting radio waves in the 1-3 megahertz. It is also called E region. Heaviside layer or Kennelly. Heayiside layer. This region reflects radio waves of medium wavelength and allows their reception around the surface of the Earth. The layer approaches the Earth by day and recedes from it at night. In medical terms, it is a cylinder of relativistic electrons gyrating in the magnetic field, which produces a self field strong enough to dominate the externally applied field and produces half reversal in the system. Since the mid '20s, another connection regarding the ionosphere has been hypothesized that lightning can interact with the lower ionosphere. According to this theory thunderstorms could modulate the transient, localized patches of relatively high-electron density in the mid-ionosphere E layer, which significantly affects radio-wave propogation.

Why is the turtle island called so?

The Turtle Island, located about 10 kms off the coast of Toucheng in Yilan County (Taiwan), has a volcanic terrain that, from certain angles, looks like a turtle floating in the sea. Hence, it is known as Turtle Island. Among the features of the island are high cliffs, steaming fumaroles (an opening in a volcano), welling underwater hot springs, mountain peaks, sea-eroded caves, a lake and unique cliff ' vegetation as well as rich marine ecological resources.

Which is the world's longest mobile phone?

The longest mobile is NEED, a concept phone created by designer Tamer Koseli, which is about 14 cm long and is narrow in width. Koseli bucked the current trend in mobile phones which come with features like a camera and MP3 players. He wanted to create a phone pared of these so-called superfluous features. NEED has an OLED display which shows basic information, and also sports a touch screen.

What does freefonix refer to?

Freefonix is a 40-episode, 3D animated music project created by Magnus Fiennes, Alex Tate and Simeon Warburton and produced by an Indian company and BBC. It is targeted at children and uses music and animation to tell an adventure story of three teenagers who accidentally discover the existence of The Thirteenth Note which brings them power and insight.

What is a moot court?

In constitutional law, a moot court is an important part of the curriculum undertaken twice in a semester, during the class time, and students serve as both presenter and judges. A moot court is a competition, conducted at both undergraduate level and in law school, in which teams of students prepare and argue legal cases. Such cases may be real or hypothetical, and the students are given a set period to prepare. Judges are selected for the cases and the general rules are framed, some of which are: 1. Petitioners, the side bringing the case, go first; 2. Presenters have a set time period for their argument. 3. Judges may ask questions at any time. They may ask anything about the case, and are not restricted to the point or argument the presenter is making at the time. 4. After the petitioners, respondents have the same time period to present their argument. 5. At the close of the arguments, the judges meet to deliberate and they make three decisions: a. Judgment of the case on merits. b. Best overall team and c. Best individual presenter.

What is the stroboscopic effect?

The stroboscopic effect is a phenomenon due to interrupted illumination of a moving object. When an oscillating body is seen in periodically interrupted light (a series of light flashes occurring at a definite rate) it appears different. If the periodicity of the vibrating body is same as that of the flashing light, the body appears to be stationary. In movies, when a wagon with spiked wheels comes to a stop, the wheels often appear to stand still, then turn backward, stop, turn forward, and then stop again. This is due to the stroboscopic effect. A stroboscope is a light source emitting light with different but definite interruption rates. It is used to determine the frequency of a vibrating body or revolutions per minute of a rotating body Car engines are tuned with the help of stroboscopic lights.

Which country has the largest reserves of petroleum?

Saudi Arabia has the largest petroleum reserves in the world. It comprises almost l/4th (24 %) of the world's proven total petroleum reserves. Saudi Arabia's economy is petroleum-based; roughly 75% of budget revenues and 90% of export earnings come from the oil industry. Officially, it has about 260 billion barrels (41,000,000,000 cubic metres) of oil reserves. It has become one of the rapidly growing countries in terms of the average per-eapita income.

What is a sovereign wealth fund?

A Sovereign Wealth Fund (SWF) is an investment fund owned by a government. The funds invested through such funds are usually the proceeds of non-renewable natural resources or a higher return alternative to holding foreign currency. An SWF differs from government funds that invest in their own country as these are usually driven by the desire to direct the economy in some way, for example, by investing in industries whose growth will have some benefit for the broader economy. The primary aim of an SWF is generating high returns.

What's unique about the rio grande river?

Rio Grande in Spanish means big river. Two different rivers bear the above name: the first is the river flowing through the eastern part of Jamaica, and the second, the river originating in the US and flowing through the southern United States and Mexico. Rio Grande of Jamaica is the largest source of fresh water in Jamaica and provides water to Jamaica's capital Kingston. It's popular among tourists for rafting, which originally was used in the river for transporting bananas from several inland transplantations to Port Antonio harbour. Rio Grande of the US is its third longest river (1885 miles) and serves as the natural boundary between Texas and Mexico. In spite of being a long river, the river, today, suffers from a low rate of flow and hardly empties into the sea. Because of drought and overuse, the river faces a serious threat of extinction.

What is llanfair pg?

Llanfair PG or Llanfairpwil is the short form and commonly used name of a village located on the island of Anglesey in Wales. The long form of the village's name is Llan fairpwilg wyngyllgogery chwyrndrobwilllanty siliogogogoch, which is Welsh for 'St Mary's church in the hollow of the white hazel near to the rapid whirlpool and the church of St Tysilio of the red cave'. This is the longest officially recognized place name in the United Kingdom and one of the longest worldwide with 58 letters. The long name was given in 1860s to the village to develop it as a commercial and tourist centre. The village was connected with London in 1850 by the railway and this artificially contrived name gave the village's railway station the honour of having the longest name in the UK.

Who has written the maximum number of books?

Phillip M Parker, an American, has written 200,000 books. He has devised computer algorithms which write text, search and do many more defined operations which have helped him write these books. Among his publications include The Official Patient's Sourcebook on Acne Rosacea (168 pages), Stickler Syndrome: A Bibliography and Dictionary for Physicians, Patients and Genome Researchers (126 pages), The 2007-2012 Outlook for Tufted Washable Scatter Rugs, Bathmats and Sets That Measure 6-Feet by 9-Feet or Smaller in India (144 pages). ii) The Guinness Book of World Records ranks Mary Faulkner (1903-1973) as the most prolific novelist, having written 904 books. Mary wrote under six pen names, which include Kathleen Lindsay, Margaret Cameron, Mary Richmond, Molly Waring and Hugh Desmond. Some of her books are There is No Yesterday and Wind of Desire, and Harvest of Deceit.

What is a banana bond?

A chemical bond is the phenomenon of chemical species like atoms held together by electrostatic or electronic forces. Of the several types of chemical bonds, a special type exists in the molecule of boron hydride BH3 which exists as a dimer B2H6 molecule. It contains two types of hydrogen atoms. Four hydrogen atoms are of one type, which are used in making four normal covalent bonds with two boron atoms (two with each of the boron atoms). The remaining two H atoms form bridges between the two boron atoms through threecentre electron-pair bonds. This type of bond involves three atoms but only two electrons. Since the shape of the electron cloud of the three-centre electron pair bond resembles the shape of a banana, it is called a banana bond.

What is a solid state drive?

Solid State Drives, or SSDs as they are popularly called, are new age storage drives and are slowly but gradually replacing traditional hard drives. A hard disk has heads, magnetic surfaces and many other complex moving parts, which enable it to function properly but they also make the hard disks fallible. The moving parts also make hard disks slower in reading and writing data. Whereas the SSD has no moving parts, no heads, and works on a principle similar to a RAM. Solid State Drives used either SDRAM or NAND Flash. Solid State Drives will replace the traditional hard disks due to their inherent advantages - they operate at higher speeds, data can be fetched almost immediately and there is no time lag between the data request sent and transfer of data.

How is inflation calculated?

Each country has its own method to calculate inflation. However, it reflects how the market prices affect a person's purchasing capacity. In India, it is based on Wholesale Price Index (WPI) where the price level of the data of 435 commodities is tracked through WPI. It is an indicator of movement of prices of commodities in all trade and transactions. In India, it is done on a weekly basis.

What is the russian avantegarde movement?

The term avante garde refers generally to art for the sake of social progress. But sometimes, the term is also used to refer to experimental and innovative art without any specific social purpose. The term is used with the former meaning in Russia, which experienced a great art reform in the period 1917-1932 in the wake of the Russian revolution. The Russian avantegarde movement is attributed to a group of about twenty artists, whose works had a great influence on the abstract art of the country of that period. The members of the movement were mostly located in St Petersberg and Moscow. Although their work had a great imi pact, these artists lacked unity, and had bitter quarrels among them| selves, each individual and sub group considering others as insignificant and wrong.

What are the webby awards?

The Webby Awards honour websites on the internet. The awards were first given away in 1996 by the now defunct magazine 'The Web'. Private investors now own the award. A Webby tradition is that the acceptance speech of the winner shouldn't exceed five words.

What is a telectroscope?

A telectroscope has several meanings. It is the first prototype of a television system. Imaginary systems of distant seeing were also referred to as telectroscope in the 19th century. In recent times, a installation art by Paul St John with a visual high-speed broadband link between London and New York City has also been called a telectroscope.

What is a 120-cell?

A 120-cell is a finite regular four-dimensional polytope with the schlafli symbol 5,3,3 (a notation to define polytopes and tessalations). It is also known as hyperdodecahedron or hecatonicosachorn and is composed of 120 docahedra, hence it is known as 120-cell. The 120-cell has 600 vertices, 720 pentagons and 11,200 edges. It is one of the six regular polychora.

What is proton therapy?

All matter consists of atoms and all atoms have protons along with other subatomic particles. When an accelerated beam of proton, (with a particle accelerator) is incident on the target tissue like a tumour, due to their relatively enormous size, protons scatter less easily in the tissue and there is very little lateral dispersion. Therefore, the beam stays focused on the tumour shape without much lateral damage to surrounding tissue. The use of protons for radiotherapy is called proton radiotherapy and like other forms of radiotherapy it involves the energized, accelerated, and ionizing protons on the target tumour.

What is the white cloud formed when a plane breaks through the sound barrier?

The sound barrier, a sharp rise in aerodynamic drag, occurs when a plane reaches the speed of sound. For an aircraft flying at subsonic speed, the pressure .waves generated by it extend in all directions, and, outspeeding the craft, transmit the disturbance uniformly. However, for supersonic speeds, the pressure field is confined to an area extending in a Mach cone from the rear of the craft. The waves are unable to get out of the way of the aircraft, and strong local shockwaves act on the wing and body of the plane. These shockwaves squeeze moisture in the air to give rise to a cloud-like effect.

When was kindergarten started?

The first kindergarten was started by German educator Friedrich Froebel in 1837 in Blankenburg, Prussia (now part of Germany). Kindergarten literally means children's garden. Froebel chose the German term kindergarten because he intended children in his school to grow as freely as flowers in a garden. Froebel based his educational philosophy on a belief in the innate creativity of children. His kindergarten stressed that children should spend part of each day engaged in play to naturally develop their creative and intellectual potential. At the time, almost no child under the age of seven attended school, but Froebel designed his kindergarten for children between three and seven. The kindergarten became widely admired for its Innovative teaching strategies and Froebel's followers soon established other kindergartens based on his philosophy.

What is the significance of jerusalem day?

Jerusalem Day, called Yom Yerushalayim by the Jews, is the festival celebrated by Israel every year on the 28th day of the lyar month of the Jewish calendar. It commemorates the liberation of the Old City of Jerusalem by Israel during a six-day war in 1967. Many sites, including Temple Mount, considered holy by the Jews, are located in the Old City of Jerusalem, and JewslfaVe been denied access to the Old City for hundreds of years. Even after the formation of Israel in 1948, Jews had control over only western Jerusalem and not the eastern part which contained the Old City Thus, liberation of Jerusalem in 1967 marked an important milestone in Jewish history, because with the liberation of the Old City, centuries of waiting and struggle by the Jews ended, and Jerusalem was subsequently united.

What are cladograms?

Cladistics is the hierarchical classification of species based on evolutionary ancestry. It's distinct from other taxonomic classification systems because it focuses on evolution rather than similarities between species. This is because it places heavy emphasis on objective and quantitative analysis. Cladistics generates diagrams called cladograms that represtait the evolutionary tree of life. The starting point of cladistic analysis is a group of species and molecular, morphological, or other data characterising those species. The end result is a treelike relationship diagram which is the cladogram. It graphically represents a hypothetical evolutionary process.

What is the large hadron collider project?

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), currently being built at CERN near Geneva, is the largest scientific instrument on the planet. When it begins operations later this year, it will produce roughly 15 petabytes (15 million gigabytes) of data annually, which scientists worldwide will access and analyse. The mission of the LHC Computing Project (LCG) is to build and maintain a data storage and analysis infrastructure.

What is the anti-greenhouse effect?

The greenhouse effect occurs when the atmosphere lets sunlight in and blocks in radiation from escaping. IfTtigTrot so, then the temperature on Earth which is 15 degrees Celsius would be -15 degrees Celsius. Imagine a layer that stops light from getting in and lets infrared out. An anti-greenhouse effect does the same thing to heat it lets heat out but doesn't let it in. The conventional greenhouse effect occurs because the atmosphere is largely transparent to solar radiation, but largely opaque to infrared. In an anti-greenhouse effect, this situation is reversed and this will cause cooling. This effect is only known to occur on Titan, Saturn's largest moon.

Which mutual fund scheme is the oldest in world?

Sherman Adams was a daring Boston broker who in 1924 introduced the world's first mutual fund, the MIT Fund, or Massachusetts Investors Trust Fund. By investing in the MIT Fund, customers could buy or sell their shares whenever they wanted, rather than tie their money up for a set number of years. After the MIT Fund survived the stock market crash of 1929, more mutual funds cropped up, leading to a massive mutual fund industry. Now, the MIT Fund is managed by MFS Investment Management.

What is continuous partial attention?

A state in which most of one's attention is on a primary task, but where one is also monitoring several background tasks. CPA is that state most of us enter when we're in front of a computer screen, or trying to check out at the grocery store with a cellphone pressed to one ear or blogging the proceedings of a conference while it's under way. We're aware of several things at once, shifting our attention to whatever is more urgent.

What's the royal ascot parade?

Ascot is a town in southern England where horse races are held and Royal Ascot is the most famous and popular race meeting. The Queen and the royal family normally attend every day The royal procession in a horse-drawn carriage, scheduled before racing on each day is the Royal Ascot parade. It was started in 1711 by Queen Anne. The Royal Enclosure has a strict dress code. Male attendees must wear full morning dress, including a top hat, while ladies must not show bare midriffs or shoulders, and must wear hats. There are 16 group races on offer, with at least one group one event on each of the five days.

Why is it cooler at higher altitudes?

As we go up, the air becomes thinner. Air molecules absorb heat from sunlight and ollide with each other. As they collide, the heat is dissipated into the atmosphere. So, where the concentration of air is high, like in the plains, the atmosphere becomes hot. At higher altitudes, because of presence of lesser number of air molecules, the number of collision nd resultant heat dissipation become less. This is why it's cooler at higher altitudes.

Why is it cooler at higher altitudes?

High altitudes normally begin at 1500 metres above sea level. At such altitudes, the atmospheric pressure is considerably lower than at sea level. To give some examples: the pressure at sea level is 14.7 pounds per square inch and it decreases through 4.3 psi at 30,000 ft to 1.6 psi at 50,000 ft. Because of this, the ayexpands as it rises and this causes it to cool. That is why it is cooler on top of mountains.

Why is it cooler at higher altitudes?

Air in the atmosphere is not heated directly by the sun. It's the surface of the Earth that's heated by the sun and the layer of air in immediate contact with the Earth's surface gets heated due to conduction. As you go away from the surface of the Earth, the heating by conduction keeps decreasing and, therefore, it is cooler at higher altitudes. That is the basic explanation. There are other factors like rising of the air in immediate contact with the surface of the Earth due to heating and, thereby, distributing heaf to the upper layers.

What's the origin of 'touch wood'?

There are several theories. According to one, it originates from the pagan belief that good spirits reside in trees such as oak, and hence, touching wood or knocking on wood would help ward off evil spirits. According to an ancient Celtic belief, trees can conduct evil spirits, much like a conductor absorbing heat. Some would knock'on wood to thank mythical creatures named leprechauns for bestowing good luck. Also, since Jesus Christ was crucified on a wooden cross, touching a wooden crucifix was, therefore, a form of praying for good luck.

How does a cryogenic engine work?

The cryogenic engine gets its name from the extremely cold temperature at which liquid nitrogen is stored. Air moving around the vehicle is used to heat liquid nitrogen to a boil. Once it boils, it turns to gas in the same way that heated water forms steam in a steam engine. A rocket like the Ariane 5 uses oxygen and hydrogen, both stored as a cryogenic liquid, to produce its power. The liquid nitrogen, stored at -320 degrees Fahrenheit, is vaporized by the heat exchanger. Nitrogen gas formed in the heat exchanger expands to about 700 times the volume of its liquid form. This highly pressurised gas is then fed to the expander, where the force of the nitrogen gas is converted into mechanical power.

What is the freedom of the seas?

Freedom of the Seas is the doctrine that ships of any nation may travel through international waters unhampered. It is the right of neutral shipping in wartime to trade at will except where blockades are established.

Why do particles and anti-particles, when they come in contact, annihilate each other?

For sub-atomic particles like electrons and protons, there exist corresponding particles with the same mass but opposite electrical and magnetic characteristics. For example, the electron's anti-particle, positron, possesses the same mass as the electron, but carries a positive charge. The anti-particles are produced naturally in radioactive decay In the universe, the number of regular sub-atomic particles and anti-particles is not the same; most matter in the universe is made of regular particles. When a particle and its anti-particle come in con- tact, both of them disappear giving rise to energy in the form of photons, gamma rays, etc. In such a reaction, if the particle and antiparticle pair does not annihilate itself, the sum total of mass energy before and after the reaction would not be the same, leading to a violation of the law of conservation of mass and energy.

What is the international space station?

The most ambitious project since the Apollo missions to land a man on the moon, the International Space Station (ISS) is the next step in human exploration of the solar system. It is a joint venture between 16 nations, and the largest scientific cooperative programme in history All power for the space station is generated by large arrays of solar panels connected to the main structure of the station. Also, attached to this framework are corrugated panels, which act as radiators, dispersing the excess heat from the station into space. Astronauts will live and work in the cylindrical modules between the solar panel arrays and will eventually be able to spend many years at a time in space.

What is the privacy paradox?

Although people are particular about safeguarding their privacy, many have no qualms in divulging critical information about themselves on public forums like social networking sites. Researchers have dubbed this the privacy paradox. It refers to how people's opinions and impulses about protecting their private information tend to be contradictory

How are points in a stock exchange calculated?

Points or index refers to a figure indicative of the health of the stock market. The most widely used index is sensex or sensitive index which is based on weighted value of 30 numbers of most traded shares in the Mumbai stock exchange. Each stock has a percentage share in a total of 100 and affects the value of the sensex accordingly Similarly Nifty is the index of 100 selected stocks which are most traded. There are others like midcap, small cap, large cap, banking, real estate, etc.

What is the treynor ratio?

The Treynor Ratio (reward-tovolatility ratio) was developed by Jack Treynor, one of the fathers of modern portfolio theory the ratio measures the returns earned from a portfolio over and above the normal return that would have been earned on a risk-free investment. The formula for the Treynor Ratio is: average return of the portfolio minus average return of the risk free rate divided by the beta of the portfolio. In short, the excess return over the risk-free return of the portfolio is divided by the beta of the portfolio to get the Treynor Ratio. Beta is a measure of market-related risk in a stock or collection of stocks. A high Treynor Ratio indicates better performance. A risk-free investment is akin to an investment in a government of India Treasury bill.

Which is the biggest container port in the world?

Singapore is said to be the biggest port handling 26.9 million standard boxes, though China now claims that in 2008, Shanghai has overtaken Singapore and expected to handle 30 million TEUs (twentyfeet equivalent units, a measure used in transport). In 2002, it was claimed that Hong Kong in China was the biggest container port.

What is the great manmade river?

The Great Manmade River (better known as GMR) is a network of pipes that supplies water from the Sahara desert to Libya from a fossil aquifer. This aquifer is known as Nublon Sandstone Aquifer System. GMR is considered to be the largest underground network of pipes in the world. It has more than 1,300 wells supplying more than 7,100,000 cubic metres of freshwater per day to the cities of Tripoli, Benghazi, Sirt and other major cities of this African nation. Some wells are as deep as 650 metres. In 1953, when drilling for the search of oil, explorers found huge quantities of freshwater. GMRP (Great Manmade River Project) was developed in 1960 and it took shape in 1984. About 88 million cubic metres of excavation was done for the completion of the first of five phases, and it. was inaugurated on August 28,1991. This mammoth project, designed by Brown Root and Price Brothers, is funded by the Libyan government and owned by the Great Manmade River Authority The Guiness Book of World Records has acknowledged it as the world's largest irrigation project.

What is sistine chapel famous for?

The Sistine Chapel takes its name from Pope Sixtus IV It's best known for being the location of papal conclaves, for the election of a new Pope. It is famous for its architecture, evocative of Solomon's Temple of the Old Testament and on its decoration which has been frescoed throughout by the greatest Renaissance artists including Michelangelo, Raphael, and Sandro Botticelli.

What do riders represent in the fiesta of san joan?

The Spanish fiesta of San Joan dates back to the 14th century and has religious significance. The riders participating in it or caixers as they are called represent the social strata of the church, nobility, craftsmen and country people (mostly farmers).

What does zumba refer to?

Zumba is a cardio-fitness regime based on Latin rhythms developed by a former aerobics instructor Alberto Perez from Colombia. A Zumba class would span several Latin dance styles including Mambo, Salsa, Cumbia and Merengue. Another unique feature of a Zumba class is its party atmosphere unlike a typical aerobics class.

Which country receives the highest rainfall in the world?

Of the 95 wettest countries in the world, Guinea, Solomon Islands and Sierra Leone are ranked the top three in order of maximum rainfall received on an average in a year, according to the World Statistics Pocket Book and the Statistical Yearbook of the United Nations. The records are for the period 1931-1960. Guinea, also known as the Republic of Guinea, with its capital named Conakry, is in Western Africa receives a monsoon-type of rainfall from June to November. Against the global weighted annual average rainfall of 9.627 cm, Guinea gets 37.84 cm, the Solomon Islands gets 32.90 cm and Sierra Leone gets 29.46 cm. Conakry is the wettest capital in the world and receives rainfall on ah average of 134 days each year. India is the ninth wettest country with 21.68 cm of average annual rainfall. The UN World Statistics for 2007 record these figures: Guinea - 37.76 cm, Solomon Islands - 32.9 cm, Sierra Leone - 29.46 cm and India 24.01 cm. Guinea was still top of the list and India retained the ninth position.

How do iridium spark plugs differ from regular ones?

Iridium is a precious, silver-white metal and one of the densest materials found on earth. The natural properties of iridium makes the spark plug use less voltage to create a spark, burn fuel more efficiently and spark at leaner air fuel mixtures. It delivers higher horsepower and better mileage.

Why do the nilgiris appear blue from a distance?

Not only the Nilgiris, but almost all mountains appear blue from a distance. This is due to a phenomenon known as the Rayleigh Scattering Effect. The light from the sun, due to which we see the mountains, is scattered by atmospheric molecules. The electric field of the incident sunlight oscillates the electrons in these molecules which, in turn, radiate light. Light having shorter wavelength (the blue end of the visible range) gets deviated the maximum from its original direction. Hence, mountains, which are near the horizon, appear bluish when the sun is higher in the sky. (ii) The term Nilgiris is the English equivalent of 'Nilagiri', Tamil for Blue Mountains. The strikingly blue colour of the hills is attributed to the clustered bloom of the mass-flowering species 'Strobilanthes kunthiana', called 'Neela kurinji' in Tamil on the hill-slopes. The funnel-shaped blossoms appear only once in 12 years and are light blue in the young plants and purplish blue in the older ones.

What is surface diffusion?

Surface diffusion is a general process involving the motion of adatoms (adsorbed atom lying on a crystal surface, used in surface chemistry when describing single atoms lying on surfaces and surface roughness), molecules, and atomic clusters (adparticles) at solid material surfaces. Tunnelling diffusion is a particularly interesting example of an unconventional mechanism wherein hydrogen has been shown to diffuse on clean metal surfaces via the quantum tunnelling effect.

What is a flophouse?

A flophouse is a place of cheap lodging. It's normally an apartment where some occupants pay rent while others are unemployed and do nothing with their lives except party and abuse drugs. They generally share bathroom facilities and reside in very cramped quarters. The people who use these places are often called transients, although some people stay in them for years. They are just a step above being homeless. Quarters in flophouses are very small and may resemble office cubicles more than a regular hotel room. In the past, flophouses were called working men's hotel and were rather dirty. Some cities that have flophouses in abundance become well known in their own right such as the Bowery in New York.

How are points in a stock exchange calculated?

Nifty is actually an index of 50, not 100, stocks. Also, sensex is calculated on free-float market cap only i.e. shares held by the public and not by promoters. But, Nifty is calculated by total market capitalisation. Hence, shares like ONGC where the promoter holding is large gets very little weight in the sensex as compared to the Nifty.

Who is a hypermiler?

Hypermilers are those who try to extract every bit of mileage from their cars by trying out various techniques like coasting when it's possible, at times even switching off the engine, not switching on the air-conditioner, etc. The term originated in hybrid driving clubs. Some radical techniques are employed by hypermilers, which are called renegades. They use extreme techniques that may even compromise their security

What is the grettis saga?

The Grettis Saga is one of the finest Icelandic family sagas, which details the life of Grettis Asmundarson, an Icelandic warrior who became an outlaw. It was written in the 13th and early 14th century Well-born, brave but troubleprone Grettis, at 14, kills a man in a quarrel and is outlawed. He spends these years in Norway performing many brave deeds. On his return to Iceland, he saves people from the malicious ghost of Glam. The dying fiend imposes a curse on him, predicting that he will grow afraid of the dark. Grettis accidentally kills the chieftain's son and is outlawed again. Grettis is pursued by kinsmen of men he has wronged and by other outlaws for the price on his head. At last, his enemies overwhelm him with the aid of witchcraft. His brother avenges his death. The saga's theme can be summed up thus: good gifts and good luck are often worlds apart.

What is the windfall tax?

The windfall tax is what's imposed on windfall gains, an abnormal increase in the profits of any organization or company in the normal course of its business due to certain circumstances. A good example would be the recent increase in the price of oil over the world. In this case, the oil exploration and production (E&P) companies will make huge gains if they sell oil to local refining companies at international prices, which are high. Such a gain is due to circumstances favouring E&P companies and not due to their cost-cutting or other efficient operations. These are windfall gains and the tax on such gains is called windfall tax.

What is unique about the hangzhou bay bridge?

Hangzhou Bay Bridge is a bridge across Hangzhou Bay off the eastern coast of China. It links the municipalities of Shanghai and Ningbo in Zhejiang province. It's the longest trans-oceanic bridge in the world although it does not have the longest cable-stayed main span. The bridge is 36 km long with six expressway lanes in two directions. The construction started on June 8, 2003 and was completed on June 14, 2007. It is not open for public transportation but is only being used for test and evaluation purpose.

Why the bucket seat in automobiles is called so?

According to some sources, the word bucket comes from the French word 'baquet' which means cockpit. A bucket seat is much more comfortable, especially for long journeys. Bucket seats came into use after World War II in small cars due to the lack of seating room for a third passenger on account of the presence of a floor-mounted gear handle.

What is pareto's (80-20) rule of automation?

Vilfredo Pareto was an Italian engineer-sociologist who, in the 19th century studied the number of people in various income classes and represented his findings in diagrams. His important conclusion was that 80% of the total wealth in the world is owned by 20% of people and that 20% of wealth is owned by 80% of people. A similar pattern is observed in many other problem areas where number of causes contribute to a particular problem. In other words, 20% of the causes contribute to 80% of the problem. The specific Pareto's (80-20) rule for automation is, however, unheard of.

What is special about the garden city of palkenberg?

The Garden City of Falkenberg is a housing estate in Berlin, Germany designed and built by the celebrated German architect and town planner Bruno Taut (1880-1938). In designing the complex, Taut applied the garden city concept he learnt from England. The most striking aspect of this architecture is its use of colour: each part of a building bears a different, contrasting colour with respect to the other parts, and all the parts together produce a harmonious and pleasing effect. Falkenberg is also the name of an important town in the Halland county on the west coast of Sweden. It is situated at the mouth of the river Atran. The town is wellknown for its food and beverage industry, and has several beaches and lakes- which form its major tourist attraction.

What is the origin of the term horse trading ?

The term horse trading. Which came into usage around 1820, owes its origin to the notorious shrewdness of horse traders who bought and sold horses? As per Macmillan English Dictionary, it means difficult and sometimes dishonest discussions between people who are trying to reach an agreement. In political parlance, it implies any long drawn-out negotiation characterised by hard bargaining and compromises. It frequently takes place in democratic institutions like legislative bodies when a parliamentarian or legislator supports some Bill or trust vote in exchange for support for one of his initiatives for another Bill or legislation.

What is moribund capitalism?

It's a concept introduced by Vladimir Lenin, who wrote that when capitalism becomes imperialistic, it is moribund capitalism. He describes the height of imperialist capitalism as "ripe and rotten-ripe capitalism" which will eventually collapse and make way for socialism. The concept was mentioned in his 1916 book, Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism.

Who is hugronaphor?

Hugronaphor is a minor Nubian king of Upper Egypt, who ruled from 205 BC to 186 BC. He successfully rebelled against the then king Ptolemy IV in 205 BC and ruled a larger part of Egypt for 19 years and was succeeded by Ankhmakis.

What is a chromophore?

A chromophore is a group of atoms and electrons (or moiety) i.e. part of organic molecules responsible for its colour. It is an extended delocalised systems of electrons in a compound which gives its colour e.g. chlorophyll's porphin ring, or an azo dyes benzene ring linked to N=N double bond. When a molecule absorbs certain wavelengths of visible light and transmits or reflects others, the molecule has a colour. A chromophore is a region in a molecule where the energy difference between two different molecular orbitals falls within the range of the visible spectrum. Visible light that'hits the chromophore can thus be absorbed by exciting an electron from its ground state into an excited state. In biological molecules that serve to capture or detect light energy the chromophore is a moiety that causes a confermational change of the molecule when hit by light.

In the stock market, what is the concept of grey marketing?

Grey marketing is a trade of something legal but through unofficial and unauthorised distribution channels. In contrast, black marketing is a trade of illegal goods or services through illegal channels. The grey market of goods is to import and sell products through market channels which are not authorized by the manufacturers. It occurs when the prices of a product differs significantly in different countries. The grey market of securities markets and IPO (Initial Public Offer) is to buy and sell the shares to be allotted in the future. Once the trading is done in the grey market at a stipulated price, the seller must deliver the sold number of shares to the buyer on the day of listing to honour the commitment.

What is unique about the production 'dralion'?

'Dralion' is an entertainment show produced by Montreal-based company Cirque du Soleil Inc, well known for its circus-based dance dramas. The show 'Dralion', which has already toured different parts of the world, is currently located at Sydney and been seen by seven million people. It's main theme is to project human life as an integral part of nature, and, specifically, to celebrate the harmony between human life and the four natural elements — earth, air, water, and fire. The theme is inspired by Chinese philosophy. It's dances combine the traditional acts of Chinese circus and the gravitydefying acrobatics unique to Cirque du Soleil. The show presents a highly imaginative and magical perspective. The title is a combination of the two symbols of East and West — the dragon and the lion.

What does guyliner refer to?

Guyliner is a kohl pencil for men. It's getting popular among men in some western countries after celebrities started sporting it. The most famous examples are Johnny Depp in the Pirates of the Caribbean series, Tobey Maguire in Spiderman 3, and Billie Joe Armstrong, the lead singer of the band Green Day

What's the origin of phrase 'gild the lily'?

William Shakespeare used a similar expression in his play King John: 'To gild refined gold, to paint the lily.. is wasteful and ridiculous excess'. Over the years, the phrase got shortened to just 'gild the lily'. Gild means to cover with a thin layer of gold. Why did Shakespeare refer to the lily? Because it is a beautiful flower, and covering it with gold to make it more beautiful would be unnecessary. So, the phrase came to mean to spoil something which is already beautiful by adding something extra.

What is. A scram shutdown and why it is called so?

SCRAM shutdown is an emergency shutdown of a nuclear reactor by inserting a large number of negative reactions into the system. It is derived from the World War II usage of the term 'Safety control rod axe man' which referred to emergency situations wherein a rope was cut to stop the operations urgently and to limit the damages arising out of continuance of such an operation. The dictionary meaning of scram is to leave a place very quickly, so that one is not caught.

Why is a transformer core always cubical in shape?

It is not true that cores are always cubical. Current Transformers (CTs) and Potential Transformers (PTs) have ring-type cores. Power transformers have cubical cores. The ideal transformer is to have all the magnetic flux produced by one winding linking the other. This is not attained in practical transformers. Flux that does not link both windings is called leakage flux and has the effect of adding an inductance that produces a voltage drop when there is a current. Leakage is affected by the shape of me core and by the arrangement of the windings.To reduce leakage, the core must be compact and the windings close together. (ii) The cores used in the transformer are generally made up of laminated silicon steel with high permeability (to minimize eddy current losses). They are rectangular in shape due to many reasons: i) Their winding requires lesser complexity and, hence, equipment is cheaper; ii) They are robust and need very less maintenance; in) There is

Source by Mr. Ashok Sharma