Aviation Tenders

How to Write a Proposal – Qualifying Your Leads and Bid/no-bid Decisions for Your Business Proposal

Once we have an opportunity we need to decide whether it is a viable one for us to actively pursue. Having meetings with clients, preparing a written proposal, travelling to a presentation and all the other costs of gaining business are just one aspect. It may be that the opportunity isn't quite right for you - it may not be your core competence or could be a distraction from a more important project or prospect. Maybe you know that your competition is in prime position for this piece of work and you feel that this project "has their name" all over it (we'll look at that problem in a later article) and that it simply isn't worth you writing a proposal.

So how do you decide whether to bid or not? The danger is that you make an emotional decision to bid and write a proposal, even though it may not be the right opportunity for the business, after all you have put in the effort to find or create the lead. You should go through this process even if a client organisation has given you a "hot" lead and asked you to respond to their RFP or tender document.

You need to qualify your lead all the way through the sales process - from the initial prospecting to just before the submission of the proposal. At Learn to Write Proposals we have our Bid Qualification Toolkit to help you make those decisions and it helps you in two ways.

Firstly, the Bid Qualification Engine helps you measure the probability of your success in a particular opportunity, but this isn't a one-time thing that might stop your business development in its tracks...every time you qualify the opportunity you are identifying strengths and weaknesses in your capture planning strategy (our next article will look at capture planning in more detail and how you can develop a strategy to help you win work). Identifying weaknesses in you position (and the potential impact of those weaknesses) early on in the business development process helps you overcome them and make your proposal and position stronger.

Secondly, the Bid/No-Bid matrix helps you make an objective decision about the viability of an opportunity.

Any sort of formal qualifying process is important and should be done regularly throughout the development process. Why? Because it will help inform you about your progress and also will help you if your bid is unsuccessful and an analysis and report has to be made of what went wrong. If you can show that you followed a structured process of identifying potential problems and mitigating them, it helps feed into improving how you go about writing business proposals and winning work.

This is the second in a short series of articles from http://www.learntowriteproposals.com examining how to write a proposal.


Source by James England

Analysis About Opportunities and Challenges of China’s LED Display Market

In recent years, China has witnessed an increasing demand for displays as a result of the rapid growth for LED displays in stadiums and gymnasiums. Currently, LED displays have been widely applied in banking, railway stations, stadiums, gymnasiums and the advertisement industry. The display screen has transformed from a traditional monochrome static display to full-color video display.
In 2006, the market demand for LED displays in China was valued at 4.05 billion Yuan, an increase of 25.1% over year 2005. The demand for full color displays amounted to 1.71 billion Yuan, accounting for 42.2% of the total market. Ranked next were the dual-color displays with a demand value of 1.63 billion Yuan, accounting for 40.2% of the entire market. Monochrome displays were not expensive, and so also achieved a total revenue of 710 million Yuan.
Now with the approaching of the Olympic Games and the World Expo, more and more LED displays will be used in stadiums, gymnasiums and roadways. LED displays will be enjoying a rapid growth in application of sports squares. As the market demand for full color displays grows in the sectors of stadiums, gymnasiums, and advertisements, full color LED displays will occupy an expanding market proportion. People are predicting that the Chinese LED display market will have a CAGR of 15.1% from 2007 to 2010 and by 2010 market demand will reach 7.55 billion Yuan.
The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games will directly promote the demand for LED displays in stadiums and gymnasiums. Furthermore, the Olympic Games has high requirements for screen quality, so high-end displays will see an increase in applications, such as Led display,Led manufacturer,Electronic signs etc. As a result, the increase in quantity and quality of LED displays will drive a higher speed of development. In addition to stadiums and gymnasiums, important events like the Olympic Games and the World Expo will directly promote the use of LED displays in the advertising field. Advertising agencies at home and abroad will certainly cherish the business opportunities brought by these events, and increase their revenue from advertising displays, thus facilitating the development of the display field.
Furthermore, these important events will be accompanied by a great many large activities, and the government, the media and other organizations will probably hold related activities during the Olympic Games and the World Expo. Some of these activities may require the application of large LED displays, thus promoting the LED display market and the leasing market as well.
In addition to this, the convening of these two sessions will stimulate the demand in government sectors for LED displays. As an effective instrument in the delivery of public news, the LED display is probably adopted by more government sectors such as the transportation and taxation
departments and authorities from industry and commerce.
Stadiums and gymnasiums, and outdoor advertisements are the two largest application fields for LED displays in the Chinese market. Outside of that, LED displays are mainly utilized in some engineering projects. Generally, the LED display projects for stadiums and gymnasiums, as well as the advertising industry, are primarily paid for through open tender, while some display projects for enterprises mainly adopt bidding to accrue revenue.
Owing to the distinct properties of engineering, LED display projects often confront funding problems. As most stadiums and gymnasiums are government projects, featuring relatively abundant capital, LED display manufacturers suffer less pressure to lower the price. While in the field of advertising, another important application field for LED displays, LED display enterprises suffer strong pressure to decrease prices because project investors vary in economic strength and mainly rely on the advertising income from displays to maintain the normal operation of the company. Post investors have a lot of flexibility in advertising income from LED displays. Investors have no guarantee of sufficient funds so LED display enterprises often wrestle with funding advertising projects.
Meanwhile, there are plenty of LED display enterprises in China. Some enterprises wage price wars to seize market shares. Sometimes there have been low quotations for bids. The interindustrial pressure of competition is increasing. In order to guarantee sound development, reduce credit risk and the amount of bad and doubtful debts, some important LED display enterprises in China are usually prudential in undertaking advertisement projects.
Currently domestic LED display enterprises are dominant in the Chinese market for their greater number and lower price. Domestically-funded and produced LED display enterprises not only meet domestic market demand but also export goods to the overseas markets. In recent years, some internationally- known LED display enterprises have gradually transferred their production bases to China due to cost pressure. For example, Barco set up a production base for displays in Beijing; Lighthouse has a production base in Huizhuo; Daktronics set up their own production plant in China. As for some display enterprises like Mitsubishi, who have not yet entered the Chinese market, have also witnessed the potential development of the Chinese market and are preparing to enter into it. With the increasing number of production bases in China set up by international LED display enterprises, together with the considerable number of domestic LED display enterprises, China is growing to be the key production base of LED displays globally.

Source by David

Bone Cancer — Symptoms and Treatment

Bone cancer is caused when cells that make the bone start to malfunction. There are different types of bone cancer, but the symptoms are almost the same for all types.

One of the sure shot symptoms of bone cancer is pain in the affected area of the bone. The pain is mostly nocturnal, and can also be felt after vigorous physical activity. The pain may stay for months or even years. Some patients can feel a lump on the affected bone or in the surrounding tissues.

Weakness in the bone is another alarming symptom of bone cancer. With weakness comes the risk of bone fracture. The affected bone becomes tender and can break at the slightest trauma.

Bone cancer spreading to the surrounding nerve can cause a dull pain, numbness, or a tingling sensation near the affected area. At times even the surrounding blood vessels are affected, and this can disturb blood flow in the body. If the patient complains of fever, chills, night sweats and rapid weight loss, there is high possibility that cancer has spread to the surrounding blood vessels and tissues.

In case the cancer develops near a joint, the patient finds it extremely difficult to move the joint. Joint pain will follow inevitably, with severe problems in limb movement. If bones in the leg are affected, the patient may walk with a limp.

Treatment of bone cancer depends on whether the cancer is benign or malignant, what type of bone cancer it is, which bone is affected, and whether or not the cancer has spread to the surrounding nerves, blood vessels and tissues. Bone cancer can be treated through surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.

In case of surgery, the surgeon removes the entire tumour from the bone. If it is found that there are normal bone cells surrounding the tumour, it is a visible proof that the entire tumour has been removed. However, if it is found otherwise, it means that cancer cells are left behind in the body and further treatment would be required. The gap left after removal of the affected area can be filled either with bone cement, a bone graft, or with bone taken from the bone bank. If a larger area is extracted, then the surgeon may go for a metal implant. 

In chemotherapy, medications are used so that the growth and spread of cancer cells can be checked. Doctors suggest chemotherapy before surgery in order to shrink the bone tumour to facilitate quick and effective surgery. Post-surgical chemotherapy is also given so that the remaining cancer cells can be killed.

In radiation therapy, X-ray beams are aimed at the affected area to destroy the cancerous cells. Too much radiation can be harmful, so radiation is given in small doses over a prolonged period of time. Radiation can be given either before of after a surgery. 


Source by Debasish Dey

Bangladesh Rice exporters continue in problems

Bangladesh will continue its ban on rice exports, possibly into next year, in order to hold down local prices of the staple food.

According to the Pius Costa, government director general of food, the decision on rice export for both aromatic and non aromatic may continue after 2009 to keep the rising price within the capacity of common people, The government has issued the order to reimpose the ban last week prohibiting export of both aromatic and non-aromatic rice till the year-end of 2009. Since May last year the government has imposed a ban on exporting rice which ended last month.

K. A. Mannan, the managing director of Mabco Food Limited, a leading importer and exporter of wheat and rice welcomed government's decision as we do not know about the output of Aman rice. But Bangladesh produces around 30 million tonnes of rice, nearly sufficient to feed its more than 150 million people. Moreover Indian traders are negotiating with us for importing rice from our country.

India, also a major rice exporter, may not lift its own ban on rice exports after of the worst monsoons in two decades, Mannan said. The Philippines, another major rice exporter, will also import more rice this year because of crop failures due to repeated typhoons, he said.  As in India, farmers in Bangladesh could not transplant rain-fed Aman seedlings in time this year because of the late arrival of the monsoon. At the moment the government has a stock of a little over one million tonne of rice, officials said, adding the government planned to check the output of Aman rice to ensure food security.

They said the agriculture ministry had set a target of cultivating transplanted Aman on 5.4 million hectares of land across the country this season while the production target was set at 12 million tonnes.

India, harvesting its smallest rice crop in seven years, plans to increase purchases from local farmers to avoid imports that are as much as 73 percent more expensive, said a government official.
The federal government will not subsidize supplies from overseas, said the official, who didn’t want to be identified. Glencore International AG and other suppliers last month offered to sell for as high as $598.75 a ton, or 27,600 rupees. That’s higher than 16,000 rupees the government pays for the grain.

Rice prices have jumped 37 percent from this year’s low in March on imports by the Philippines and as drought cut output in India, fueling speculation the country will be a net buyer for the first time in more than two decades. India may purchase as much as 3 million tons, Olam International Ltd. said last month. “Import of rice at prices higher than what we pay farmers is always political dry gunpowder,” R.S. Seshadri, a director at Tilda Riceland Pvt., one of India’s biggest rice exporter, said yesterday in an e-mailed response.

India’s state trading firms, PEC Ltd., MMTC Ltd. and State Trading Corp. on Oct. 30 sought to buy 10,000 metric tons each. Trade Minister Anand Sharma said Nov. 20 the nation won’t import because it has adequate supplies, days after saying the country is in talks with Thailand and Vietnam to secure rice supplies.

The government will have to pay importers as much as $250 a ton to cover losses for selling imported rice at domestic rates, Rakesh Singh, a trader at Emmsons International Ltd., one of the companies that participated in the tender.

State Reserves:

India’s monsoon-sown rice production may decline 18 percent to 69.45 million tons from a record 84.58 million tons last year because of drought, according to the farm ministry. Warehouses had 15.35 million tons on Oct. 1, three times the buffer level. The government bought 12.3 million tons from farmers as on Dec. 2, up from 11.5 million tons a year earlier.

When the government says we have supplies that are enough to last 13 months, it means we are in a comfortable position, Vijay Setia, former president of the All India Rice Exporters’ Association, said in an interview.

Rice for January delivery was little changed at $15.725 per 100 pounds in after-hours trading on the Chicago Board of Trade. Futures surged to a record $25.07 per 100 pounds last year as concerns over food shortages led nations including India and Vietnam to curb exports, sparking food riots from Haiti to Egypt.


Source by Parkash Trading

How to Sell your Products in India

Doing business with India

India is the other Asian country whose economy is booming (with China of course). Although it is several years behind China in its economic development, India has a development rate at least as fast as its important neighbour. Development of infrastructures is hindered by a corrupted government, but the private sector is booming.

India is a completely democratic country. As a result, business practices are totally different from the rest of Asia. Business is based on free trade. You can market your products by direct sales.

Business in India is based on networking and building relationships, face to face meetings, and negotiation.

It is easier to do business in India by networking and building relationships, rather than direct sales contacts. But direct sales are also possible. Working on and developing relationships is mandatory. Business in India favors relationships, so it is important to maintain your precious relationships with your customers and prospects.

Visiting your customers is also mandatory. Your customers are looking forward to meeting you and pay a high importance to your visit. It is not rare to have a full room as an audience. You may have to present your products to 10 to 20 people. Your Indian customers will very much appreciate technical details about your products. Technical education is very high in India. During a meeting you will have to answer at least a dozen technical questions, most of them being very technical and very targeted. Giving satisfactory technical answers will prove your competence and will be very much appreciated. It can make the difference between closing a deal or losing a sale.

Finally, India is a country where negotiation is part of normal business practices. You will have to bargain and give in something, so be prepared. A price reduction of about 5% is common.

The country of sales representatives

A sales representative will be of great help to enter the Indian market. Visiting clients being so crucial, a local sales representative will give you this precious capability. The sales representative will be able to visit customers, develop a relationship with your prospects, and negotiate contracts (the negotiation phase generally necessitates several meetings).

India is the country of independant sales representatives. Many sales representatives from this country have probably already contacted you to sell your products. However, the quality of sales representatives varies greatly. You will find sales representatives that try to make one great deal and maximize their profits but don't try to grow the volume of sale of your products. You will also find very good and very professional sales representatives that will be able to reach prospects very efficiently in a targeted market.

Try out several sales representatives until you find the one that you like. Do not grant exclusivity on a territory before being satisfied with your sales representative. Be careful though, once you have several sales representatives consolidating the sales activities into one contact will be difficult. Once you find a good sales representative, gradually transfer all your business to him. Give him your new leads systematically. And be patient, consolidating your sales actions can take several years.

The fiscal year in India starts on April 1st and ends on March 31st. You will most likely receive your most significant orders at that time of year.


Source by RepGlobal

How to Write a Proposal – Business Proposal Planning and Managing Your Bid

This is the fourth in a short series of articles from Learn to Write Proposals examining how to write a proposal.

If you compare sales people and project managers yu may conclude that you wouldn't want your project managers going out selling and writing bids and you wouldn't want your sales people running your biggest projects. That's a huge generalisation and probably not fair to the many exceptions to the rule, however, writing sales documents is a different type of writing that many internally focused staff aren't familiar with.
But the point is that quite often, sales people aren't the best at planning and managing detail, especially when it relates to project plans and the like.There's a good reason for this - they are often out on the road, visiting clients, managing relationships and don't have time to micro-manage a complex development project...even if that project is a written proposal. Plus, dealing with the detail isn't what drives sales people.

With the advent of proposal centres and bid team support in many organisations the onus has been taken off a lot of sales people when it comes to planning the detail of a bid, managing those who need to contribute to it and actually writing the business proposal. Where bid teams exist they often take over the project and the account manager becomes a contributor to the combined effort.

But what about in smaller organisations where there is no bid team? How do they manage the production of sales documents? Ideally you need someone to manage the project (of writing the proposal) and that person should have commercial awareness to do it. Look at the job advertisements for bid team managers and you'll see some of the skills required.

So if you don't have a bid team behind you, or you are managing a bid for the first time, what do you need to do?

Firstly, check all the requirements of the RFP or tender documentation - know exactly what you have to submit and when. Just like any project planning think about the goals and work backwards, considering all the project dependencies.If it's a large bid with a lot of people working on it, then get some help off a project manager in putting a project plan together.

Learn to Write Proposals has a whole bid management toolkit to support the bid preparation. Our bid planner includes key things that you need to include in your bid planning including the Proposal Development Schedule. This requires some basic planning, such as:

  • Key Event
  • Start date / Finish date
  • Who is responsible?
  • Deliverable Status

The Bid Management Plan should pull in the relevant strategic overview from the capture planning document for this opportunity and look closer at each section of the proposal and allow you to allocate ow- nership of the different proposal sections. It should look at other areas too - it is there as a practical tool to help you be successful, so develop it, keep it updated and circulate it with updates to everyone involved. Other things that you should consider are:

  • Detail of each specific requirement: summarise or copy the requirement from the RFP
  • Your response to the requirement: How do you meet the requirement and add value in your solution. (Use strategy and win themes from the bid capture plan)
  • Documents: are there any other documents to read or to refer to?
  • Graphics: would your response benefit from graphics (the answer is yes, so make a list of the graphics you need and schedule time for them to be prepared)
  • Who?: Which individuals are responsible for drafting the relevant sections for the proposal?
  • When? What date is the response required?: update this if a draft has been completed and the individual is now working on the next version - it can be checked off when verified as finished

A common mistake is not allowing enough time at the end of the proposal for proper review. Anyone who has been involved in writing proposals has had the experience of the late night trying to get a proposal finished because it has to be handed in the next day. That might not be such a problem if your are making last minute changes to perfect the fourth draft, but if you are just trying to finish the first draft, the chances are you're in trouble.

As England's law of proposal writing states: "The chances of winning a proposal are directly in proportion to the number of hours between finishing it and the time it has to be submitted."

There are some very good reasons why you should give yourself time for the proposal to be reviewed properly - and we will look them in a later article on quality reviewing a proposal. For now, just ensure that you give yourself plenty of time for this in your proposal schedule - I recommend at least four days and schedule the people you will need to review it for that time.

Lastly, when thinking about proposal planning, bear in mind those times when you have multiple proposals to prepare. It makes life harder and it means getting more people involved. Sometimes it may even require a decision that you can't bid for some of the smaller, lower-probability opportunities. That's when opportunity qualification and making bid/no-bid decisions really comes to the fore of your business development strategy.

Next...what information do I need to include when I write a business proposal.

For more proposal resources visit http://www.learntowriteproposals.com


Source by James England

How to ‘recession Proof’ Your Revenue Target

When the going gets tough, true sales professionals man the O.A.R. (take Ownership, Accountability and Responsibility), lean harder into the opposing current and double the rowing tempo.

They implement four (4) strategies to secure their revenue targets:

1.    Get ‘active' and up the ante on the key activities which drive results,

2.    Know key conversion ratios and expect them to drop by approximately 30%

3.    Adjust your marketing direction to include ‘recession proof' segments, and

4.    Re-hone your ‘Consultative Selling Skills' – don't sell; value add.

Let's explore each:

1.     Get ‘active' and up the ante on the key activities which drive results:

A sales director had an artist do a painting of his sales team – it was a ‘Still Life!' Inaction breeds depression. Take a lesson from the dictionary; ‘Activity' comes well before ‘Results'. You have no control over the results; you can only control the activity you do. During tough times Sales Professionals increase the rowing tempo; by this I mean they know they will need to do more ‘activity' in order to get the same result.

Get active. Get out there and expect the lag period between activities and results to blow out. At the moment some customers will be in a holding pattern, so you need allow for the fact that your Lag Factor will increase.

2.         Know your conversion ratios and expect them to drop:

The current level of volatility in the global economic market is causing people and businesses to adopt a ‘wait and see' approach to some projects or purchases. We can therefore expect to see your usual conversion ratios shift. If you usually win two in every three quotes/tenders or proposals, expect it to drop to one in three. This doesn't mean we panic – it simply means you have to increase activity and pump more into the pipeline, because not as much will make it through. It is therefore critical to track your ratios in order to chart any movement, and adjust your activity levels accordingly. From here you should…

3.         Adjust your marketing direction to include some ‘recession proof' market segments:

More than ever it's time to put away the shotgun, and bring out the sniper rifle. Re-visit your marketing direction. Identify or intensify you sales activity on those market segments which are more resilient to economic downturn. Communicate a clear ‘Sales and Marketing' direction to the sales team, and ensure they are monitored, measured and rewarded for doing sales activity which is aligned to the sales and marketing direction. Finally, on any true sales professionals' ‘To-do' list, they never forget to…

4.         Re-hone your ‘Consultative Selling' skills:

More than ever your ability to ‘add value' becomes critical. The sky has not fallen in, but businesses and consumers are tightening their belts. They are still spending but only where they see great value for money, or where your products/services solve bigger issues, challenges or concerns for them. Our skill of uncovering their real needs and offering up a solution linked strongly to those needs becomes paramount during tough times. Regardless of how long you have been at it, dust off your ‘consultative selling skills' training, become aware of the bad habits you or your team have fallen into during the good times, and unlearn them. The best sales performers during an ‘economic winter season' are those who can unlearn bad habits. Re-learn the consultative skills to build strong rapport, and create an environment where the client or consumer wants to buy from you.

Call to action: Get proactive. Table this article at your next sales meeting or sales managers huddle. Discuss its implications in your world. Identify what's relevant and if you are not already acting on these, act on them.


Source by Ian Stephens

Anatomy of a Proposal…our Understanding of Your Requirement

Why do we need to explain back to the client what the requirement is? Surely the customer knows all there is to know about their problem? Why do we need to tell them?

Well, yes they do know their problem and there will always be some background to the opportunity in the tender documentation. However, if you want them to think that you have a unique capability to deliver this project then you need to demonstrate you understand the problem, the client and their industry.

Remember the tip when answering questions in a presentation? Well the idea is to repeat a question back to the client - not only does it give you a little more time to think, but it verifies that you are answering the right question. OK - in a proposal it doesn't give you any more time and you aren't in the same direct dialogue with the client, but it does give you a chance to show them you understand their needs and can help you solidify your approach to the response.

Hopefully, you will have been in dialogue with the client prior to the RFP or tender and have discussed their business and context of the opportunity. If you haven’t, try and get a meeting with the client as soon as the RFP is issued and engage them in dialogue straight away. Your goal is to understand the deeper business needs and context as well as build a relationship.

There is always an immediate need – that which is described in the tender documentation. But remember that there is always a deeper background cause that has resulted in the immediate opportunity. You may have come across various sales training approaches – such as SPIN Selling or Professional Selling Skills (PSS). SPIN describes this as ‘implication’ – in PSS, it’s described as the ‘need behind the need’.

Once the real business need is known, it is easy to extrapolate the solution and your win themes – that your solution can not only meet the specification, but solve your customer’s business problems.

Tom Sant in his excellent book “Persuasive Business Proposals” (at Learn to Write Proposals we recommend this book so much that we will give a copy to every new lifetime member) uses a quotation from the Roman statesman Cicero:

“If you wish to persuade me, you must think my thoughts feel my feelings and speak my words.”

This really sums up understanding a client’s requirement – it’s reflecting back to the client how they feel about this problem and its context to them.

Importantly, this statement also says use their language. Know who your customer is and know who is reading this proposal. Use their language - don’t be overly technical if it will be read by the Sales Director. Use the language and terminology that they use in the RFP.

Use some of your thoughts and ideas on the client and their requirements from your Bid Capture Plan document.

Scope of required work

This could be a section on its own or it could be included in the solution section of your proposal – remember that you need to structure your document in order to make it as appropriate for your client as you can.

This section is the “singing off the same hymn sheet” part. Following from the understanding of the requirement, you need to reflect specific work outputs that will be delivered in order to get the problem solved. It's not how you are going to deliver those work outputs - that comes later in the specification response. What it does do is ring-fence the expectation of what the client will receive.

The vital part is to match their requirement. If you truly understand the buyer and the context of the opportunity you will be able to match the input of effort required to the desired output. For instance, if the buyer needs a cost-saving solution with a specific budget, then a luxury all bells and whistles solution doesn’t reflect what they want. Even if it solves their problem(s) is it best value?

Be clear on what the client needs, what they are going to get and it gives you room to build your value proposition and manage expectations. The bells and whistles can always follow.

For our full proposal guide and more bid writing information go to http://www.learntowriteproposals.com


Source by James England

Hotshot Crew

The life

This section's tone or style may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. Specific concerns may be found on the talk page. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (February 2010)

Redmond Hotshot's crew truck on the Bear Gulch fire in Washington

When not on fire assignments, the crew performs project work such as prescribed burning and fuels reduction.

Living conditions while on assignments can be primitive. Hot meals, soft beds, and regular showers are not to be expected. Field assignments away from home can last several weeks with daily work shifts averaging 16 hours, but can extend up to 48 - 64 hours. Sleep deprivation is probable, as is routine exposure to dust, smoke, poison oak, extreme weather (both heat and cold) and other environmental hazards.

Hotshot vehicles become a home away from home during the peak of the season when Hotshots may rarely spend more than two consecutive days at their own station. These vehicles, also known as Buggies, Crummies, or simply the Box, carry Hotshots along with personal gear, tools, and everything else necessary to make the crew self-sufficient for several days.

Crew breakdown

A crew working a fireline in the Grapevine Pass in California.

A hotshot crew consists of 20-22 members. There are two national formats certified for hotshot crews.

The first format is:

One GS-9 Superintendent;

Two GS-8 Foremans, (also known as Captains, or Assistant Superintendents)

Two GS-6/7 Squad Leaders; and

Two - Three GS-5 Senior Firefighters.

Approximately thirteen GS-4 and/or GS-3 Temporary Firefighters.

The second format will have one GS-8 Foreman, and Three GS-6/7 Squad Leaders

In addition, Hotshots are assigned various other specialized roles within the crew. These specialties may include:

Medics - certified at the EMT-B level or higher.

Swampers and Sawyers - Usually considered a saw "team", the sawyers will take turns with one person using the chain saw to cut, and the other person pulling and throwing the cut material to the non-fire side of the handline. The teams usually trade tasks with each tank of fuel used in the chain saw. The reason for this is cutting with the saw and swamping are both physically exhausting, but in different ways, so trading tasks allows the team to do more work for longer. Also, operating the chainsaw is usually a more desirable task, compared to throwing brush and limbs, so trading tasks is more equitable.

Physical fitness

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In order to effectively perform their duties, Hotshots must maintain a high level of physical fitness. Whenever they are not on a fire assignment, crews devote at least one hour a day to physical training (PT). This training can include steep hikes, weight lifting, and long-distance runs. Traditionally, 5-10 mile runs were the favored PT for Hotshot crews. Recently, there has been a shift towards more hiking. On these hikes, Hotshots may climb without stopping for over an hour while carrying upwards of 60 lbs. in gear and tools.

At a bare minimum, each Hotshot must complete a 3 mile hike carrying a 45 pound pack in under 45 minutes. Other minimum PT standards commonly adhered to are, 1 1/2 mile run in 10:35 or less, 25+ push-ups in 60 seconds, 40+ sit-ups in 60 seconds, and 7 pull-ups. These standards are an absolute minimum, and most Hotshots' capabilities far exceed those numbers.

See also

Fire Use Module


Wildland fire engine

Wildland fire tender

Wildland fire suppression

External links

Roosevelt Hotshots

Index of all Hotshot Crews

Pike Hotshots

Winema Hotshots

Unofficial Winema Hotshots

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Hotshot Fitness - Running, Hiking and Strength Training advice for hotshots

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Source by qoqo

Tulum Airport Plans Boost Riviera Maya Real Estate

Newspaper reports have revealed details of the much-awaited Tulum airport plan, including the date the project will be put out to tender, said RE/MAX Investment Properties, experts in Mexico real estate investment, today.

A source at the Mexican Government's Secretary for Communications and Transport (SCT) told Reuters news agency last week that November 9, 2009, "is the latest date" for publishing the terms of the auction, although other reports suggested a delay could still be possible.

RE/MAX Investment Properties said the news is a "boost" for the Riviera Maya real estate market.

In a separate article just days later by Mexico City's Excelsior newspaper, details were revealed for the project from a SCT document the daily said it had seen.

According to the document, said Excelsior, current investment in Riviera Maya hotel and resort projects could lead to the creation of 2,800 direct jobs per year and the number of visitors to the Riviera Maya could reach 17.9 million tourists in 2025.

The paper went on to quote technical details for the new Riviera Maya international airport in Tulum from the government's agency for Airports and Auxiliary Services (ASA):

- The airport will be on Riviera Maya real estate in the the municipality of Solidaridad, to the east of Xel-Ha, between Tulum and Playa del Carmen, on the road that goes to Cobá.

- It will be 40 miles (65 km) from Cozumel airport and 63 miles (102 km) from Cancún airport at map coordinates s 20° 20’ 30” (N) and 87° 30’ 30” (W), 10 miles (15.8 km) from the coast at Punta Cadenas, to the south of Tankah. The coordinates show that trees have already been cut back in the area when viewed on satellite imagery from Google Maps.

- The main runway will have orientation to 120°-300° as in Cancun and Cozumel and in accordance with prevailing winds.

- The main runway will be 2.2 miles (3.5km) long by 50 yards (45m) wide, corresponding with international aviation recommendations.

- The total area of the Tulum land for the airport is estimated at 2,644 acres (1,070 hectares).

- The Riviera Maya land where the airport will be built is 20m above sea level.

New estimates suggest the first phase will cost around $120-200 million to construct and the new airport could have a capacity for around 3 million passengers per year.

RE/MAX Investment Properties said local politicians have described the project as an "economic trigger" that will turn Tulum into one of the most prosperous areas in the Mexican Caribbean.

Tulum became an independent municipality last year and new infrastructure projects such as the airport and major highways improvements have been confirmed, causing land prices to rise rapidly.

The airport news leads to some of the best investment opportunities to be found in Mexico, land here is a great buy right now. Don't miss out on your own piece of Riviera Maya real estate.


Source by Investment Properties Mexico