Air Charter

Aviation Sights of Maryland

Aviation had descended on Maryland, literally, as far back as 1784 when America’s first balloon flight had returned to earth in Baltimore, beginning a long line of flight-related achievements.  Civil war balloons, for example, had constituted the world’s first “aircraft carriers” in 1861, and the world’s oldest, continuously-operating airport, College Park, had been established in 1909 in order to train the first two Army pilots to fly their Wright Brothers-designed aircraft.  Navy pioneer flights had been conducted in Annapolis.  Home to three major aircraft manufacturers and several smaller ones, Maryland had spawned the first commuter airline, Henson, while today it is the location of NASA’s Goddard Space flight Center and the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA).

Maryland’s aviation history can be divided into six periods:

  1. The pioneer days, during which the initial airfields had sprung up with the grass which had provided their runways.
  2. The classic era, when the first airports and airlines had been established and the first airmail service had been inaugurated.
  3. The military-necessitated expansion, particularly during the Second World War.
  4. The post-war and Cold War period.
  5. Present-day aviation.
  6. Space.

These periods, along with their advancements, can be studied at several aerospace-related sights, all of which are within an hour’s radius by road.

The first of these, at Martin State Airport in Middle River, is the Glenn L. Martin Maryland Aviation Museum.

Born on January 17, 1886, Glenn Luther Martin himself, a self-taught pilot, had owned Ford and Maxwell dealerships in Santa Ana, California, at age 22.  His first aircraft, a Curtiss Pusher-resembling biplane powered by a 12-hp Ford engine, had been designed and built in collaboration with mechanics in an auto shop set up in a rented, unused church.  He had been the third American after the Wright Brothers and Curtiss himself to have designed his own aircraft.

Establishing the Glenn L. Martin Aircraft Company in 1912, he had immediately adopted a strategy of hiring talented managers and trained engineers, many of whom had later become aircraft manufacturers in their own right, such as William Boeing, Donald Douglas, Lawrence Bell, and James S. McDonnell.  His resounding success can be directly attributed to his dedicated, unwavering life philosophy, expressed in 1918.  “The way to build aircraft or do anything else worthwhile,” he had stated, “is to think out quietly every detail, analyze every situation that may possibly occur, and, when you have it all worked out in practical sequence in your mind, raise Heaven and hell, and never stop until you have produced the thing you started to make.”

Martin State Airport, inextricably tied to the man who had created it, had been founded in 1929 when Martin had purchased 1,260 acres 12 miles east of Baltimore in order to establish an aircraft manufacturing factory, then considered one of the most modern.  The Eastern Baltimore County communities which had housed its workforce had developed concurrently with it.

The high-speed B-10 bomber, for which Martin had been awarded the Collier Trophy, had been built here during the early-1930s.

Between 1939 and 1940, construction of three runways, three hangars, and an Airport Administration Building had taken place, while several more hangars, including those at Strawberry Point, had followed in 1941.

Always relying on military orders, particularly for heavy bombers, the Glenn L. Martin Aircraft Company had designed the twin-engine PBM series flying boat; the twin-engine, high-wing, high-speed M-26 Marauder; and the Martin Mars, all bombers instrumental during World War II, its only significant commercial design having been the three M-130 Clipper flying boats built for Pan Am in 1935.  A one-off M-156, a larger-span derivative for Russia, had been produced three years later.

The twin, piston-engined, unpressurized Martin 2-0-2 of 1946-1947 and its pressurized counterpart, the Martin 4-0-4 of 1950-1951, had constituted its only significant post-war airliners.  Intended as elusive DC-3 replacements, they had faced strong competition from the similar Convair 240, 340, and 440 series.

The B-57 Canberra, a twin-jet, straight-winged, medium bomber designed for the US Air Force, had been produced between 1952 and 1954.

Conceding to changing economic conditions, the Glenn L. Martin Aircraft Company had merged with the American-Marietta Corporation, a major defense contractor of missiles, space hardware, avionics, and guidance systems, in 1961, resulting in the Martin-Marietta Corporation, its successor.  Nevertheless, between 1909 and 1960, the Martin company had autonomously churned out more than 11,000 aircraft and 80 predominantly military designs, most of which had fought in all theaters of war.

On September 20, 1975, the state of Maryland had acquired the 747-acre Martin State Airport in order to offer a Baltimore-proximity general aviation reliever field.

Once again merging with Lockheed in 1995, the Martin-Marietta Corporation, rebranded Lockheed-Martin, had been parlayed into one of the world’s largest aerospace manufacturers.

Martin State Airport, with a single, 6,996-foot runway and a private tower, is home to the 175th Wing of the Maryland Air National Guard, comprised of the 135th Airlift Group and the 175th Flight Group, basing a fleet of A-10C and C-130J Hercules aircraft there.

The Glenn L. Martin Maryland Aviation Museum, located at the airport, had been founded in 1990 “to maintain an educational institution dedicated to the promotion, preservation, and documentation of aviation and space history in Maryland,” according to its mission statement, particularly “the contributions of Glenn L. Martin and his successful company."

The museum, chronicling the development of the aircraft manufacturer, its designs, and its people from its origins to its present form as Lockheed-Martin, features photographs and models, subdivided by period, such as “The Dream,” “The Early Years,” “The Depression,” “The Pre-War Era,” “The War Years,” “The Postwar Era,” “The Cold War Era,” and “Present.”  Eleven mostly-Lockheed aircraft, showcased on the ramp at Strawberry Point and requiring vehicle escort, include a Martin 4-0-4 airliner; an F-101F Voodoo jet interceptor; an F-4 Phantom; a TA-4J Skyhawk, which had been used during the filming of “Top Gun;” two Martin RB-57A Canberra jet reconnaissance bombers; an F-105G Thunderjet; an F-100F Super Sabre; an A-7D Corsair II; an RF-84F Thunderflash jet photo-reconnaissance aircraft; and a Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star jet trainer.

South of Martin State Airport, in the BWI Observation Gallery of Baltimore-Washington International Airport, present-day commercial aviation can be studied.  The gallery, overlooking the ramp, features displays about the evolution of the airliner, weather, and air traffic control, but its strength lies in the many actual airliner sections which permit detailed inspection, including a Boeing 707 main undercarriage bogie; a Boeing 737-200 nose and cockpit, a fuselage mid-section, a right wing with fully extended spoilers and trailing edge flaps, and a vertical stabilizer and rudder; and a Boeing 747-100 Pratt and Whitney JT9D-7A turbofan.  Located before the airport’s security area, it is accessible to the general public.

Twenty-five miles south of the airport, in Greenbelt, Maryland, is an opportunity to shift focus from aviation to aerospace at the Goddard Space Flight Center.  Located on a 1,270-acre area, which excludes the adjacent Magnetic Test Facility and the Propulsion Research site, it had been established in 1959 as NASA’s first space flight center whose purpose had been to develop and operate unmanned scientific spacecraft in order to manage many of its earth observation, astronomy, and physics missions, and is currently one of 13 such centers strategically located throughout the country.

Dr. Robert H. Goddard, for whom the Maryland facility had been named, is recognized as the father of modern rocket propulsion and is to space what the Wright Brothers had been to aviation.

The Goddard Space Flight Center, the location of the US’s largest organization of combined scientists and engineers dedicated to learning about and sharing their knowledge of the earth, the sun, the solar system, and the universe, builds and operates most of NASA’s science research satellites, including the Hubble Space Telescope, and manages their tracking and orbiting.  It will play a major role in the US’s return to the moon with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission (LRO) whose purpose is to develop new technologies to support human space exploration of Mars and beyond.

Numerous, campus-wide facilities enable it to achieve these goals.  The Gravity Evaluation Facility, for example, evaluates optical components and detection systems used in space instrumentation, while the Flight Dynamics Facility offers a range of engineering services to mission designers, spacecraft builders, and the spacecraft themselves, determining their orbits and altitudes.  It supports both Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicles.

The high-capacity centrifuge rotates and accelerates 5,000-pound payloads up to 30 revolutions-per-minute.  The Hubble Space Telescope Center observes and controls the telescope 24 hours per day.

Computational modeling and processing of space-borne observations, the responsibility of the NASA Center for Computational Sciences, has greatly increased understanding of earth, the solar system, and the universe, while the Communications Network provides communications support for all NASA projects by means of its global positioning system.

Generating commands and interfacing communication between the ground and spacecraft is attained through Goddard’s Payload Operations Control Center, and the three-story thermal-vacuum chamber, located in the Space Environment Simulator, is able to create temperature and vacuum conditions of any conceivable launch or orbit.

Actual spacecraft, their components, and their tools are manufactured by the Spacecraft Fabrication Facility.

Finally, the Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility, at 86,000 square feet one of the world’s largest laminar-flow “clean rooms,” is able to remove 99.99-percent of all particles in the air.  The Hubble Space Telescope’s First Servicing Mission, for example, had utilized this facility for preparation of its instruments and devices before their transfer to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida for launch on Space Shuttle mission STS-61.  The successful telescope servicing, requiring five extravehicular activities (EVAs), had entailed an 11-day mission.

An overview of Goddard Space Flight Center’s engineering and technology activities, earth and space science studies, and general mission and goals can be gleaned from its Visitors Center.

The final, but perhaps most significant, Maryland aviation sight, located only a few miles from the Goddard Space Flight Center, is the College Park Aviation Museum.

Its College Park Airport location, chosen in 1909 so that the Wright Brothers could fulfill their requirement to train two officers to fly their US Army-selected Wright Model A Military Flyer, and currently a general aviation facility with 80 based aircraft and a single, 2,600-foot runway, qualifies it as the world’s oldest, continuously-operating airport and had been the scene of numerous aviation-relation innovations.

Mrs. Ralph H. Van Daman, for instance, had become the first woman in the US to fly as a passenger and Lieutenant George Sweet had become the first naval officer to take to the skies.  In 1911, the first Army Aviation School had been established here.

Aviation innovations continued the following year: a “Military Aviator” pilot rating, for example, had been introduced; the first aircraft-installed machine gun had been tested; Lieutenant Hap Arnold had made the first mile-high flight; and, sadly, the first death of a military enlisted man, Corporal Frank S. Scott of the US Army, had occurred.

Instrumental in the development of aviation, College Park Airport is today a living, multi-faceted history book with chapters concerning Wright Brothers pilot training, military training, inaugural airmail service, vertical flight testing, blind navigation aid development, the Golden Age of Aviation, civilian pilot training, public acceptance of flight, World War II Women’s Air Services Pilots (WASP) training, North Pole open-cockpit biplane flight, present-day general aviation, and ultimate inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places.

Many original and reproduction aircraft, exhibited in the adjacent College Park Aviation Museum, tell the airport’s story.  The 27,000-square-foot museum itself, a glass-and-brick, curved roof building inspired by early Wright Brothers aircraft and an affiliate of the Smithsonian Institution, had opened in 1998 “to research, preserve, interpret, and promote the history and collections of the College Park Airport.”

The historically significant aircraft, overlooking the airport’s runway through floor-to-ceiling windows, cover the 45-year period from 1901 to 1946.  The 1901 Wright Glider, for instance, had been wind tunnel-tested at NASA Langley, while the 1910 Wright Model B, a two-seat, fabric-covered biplane turned with the aid of Wright-designed wing-warping, had formed part of the US’s first Military Aviation School.  The Bleriot XI, a monoplane which had been the first to have crossed the English Channel from Calais to Dover on July 25, 1909, had been manufactured and sold by the College Park-located National Aeroplane Company.

The Curtiss JN-4H Jenny, the workhorse of the airmail fleet, had inaugurated airmail service from College Park to New York on August 12, 1918, although the museum’s example is of the earlier JN-4D series.  The Berliner Helicopter, designed by father-and-son team Emile and Henry Berliner, is a triplane-appearing aircraft which had mated a Nieuport 23 fuselage with two counter-rotating rotors and had conducted vertical flight experiments in 1924.

The Monocoupe 110, Taylor J-2 Cub, Taylorcraft BL-65, and Aeronica 65LA Chief, all represented by the museum, had played major roles in civilian pilot training and air shows during the 1930s and –40s here, while the Boeing PT-17 Stearman had successfully made the first open-cockpit biplane flight to the North Pole.

A scaled-down replica of the Wright Brothers’ 1909 hangar, an airmail exhibit entailing the Curtiss Jenny and a mannequin representing first airmail pilot Max Miller, and an air derby platform typical of the George Brinckerhoff period all aid in illustrating the historical chapters written at College Park Airport.

From the hot air balloons which had first ascended from its soil in 1784 to the return to the moon mission of the near future, Maryland has provided the stage upon which aviation had developed before it could move up, literally, to the higher level for which it had been intended—in essence, the way the entire planet has provided the stage upon which we have developed before we all move up to the higher level for which we had been intended…




Source by Robert G. Waldvogel

Try Alaska Fishing and Lodging

When it comes to fishing, Alaska is probably the best place to be especially when you are thinking about salmon, halibut, trout and other species you still haven't seen but wanted to fish. Chances are if you are already on a vacation in Alaska, fishing might already be in your itinerary. Or you might just have heard about amazing fishing stories that make Alaska the fishing haven that it is to most people.What makes Alaska a special place for fishing is its natural waters. Be it stream, river, lake or deep sea, Alaska offers more than six hundred species of fish. This is the reason why countless people go to Alaska every year. Perhaps you have heard of the legendary Kenai River where the world's largest king salmons are caught. In the summer you can find Rainbow and Steelhead trout as well. Such fishing paradise is present in Alaska. It would be ideal if you pick the right fishing season.Fishing can also be considered a relaxing vacation. That is why you need to plan in advance. There are many travel agencies that offer Alaska fishing and lodging packages so make sure that you choose well. Just imagine that would be spending hours on end in the waters and you must ensure that all your needs are met sufficiently. Of course you would prefer a lodge that would assist you and give no less than a complete service guided tour. A charter captain would be a nice too. Not only that. You would definitely want a comfortable and safe place to stay after a tiring fishing trip.Most Alaska fishing and lodging packages normally provide modern amenities that will allow you to sleep and rest in an air-conditioned room, relax on deck, soak in the tub or shoot pool with your fishing buddies. Some could even arrange fishing parties for you. Food would not be a problem since it would be included in the package. Some would even go further by having a professional chef make you gourmet meals all throughout your stay.If you are worried about packing and shipping all the fish you caught then you'd better stop. These lodges can do it all for you! So fish all you want and they can take care of the rest. It's not every day so that you can get to do what you love and have somebody else do all the dirty work. I must say that this is the ultimate fishing experience.But the real sweet deal if you take on this Alaska fishing and lodging package is not the modern and comfortable provisions of the lodges but the breath taking nature as backdrop of your fishing trip. Imagine different kinds of animals surrounded by beautiful rainforest trees and mountains. If you live in the city then being one with nature like this would truly be a very rewarding experience.So whether you are just on a quest to find the largest fish out there or you are after the relaxing vacation that no other place could give, go for a true Alaskan trip!




Source by Chris Hanson

Closer To Truth: ESP

There is an ongoing PBS TV series (also several books and also a website) called "Closer To Truth". It is hosted by neuroscientist Robert Lawrence Kuhn. He's featured in one-on-one interviews and panel discussions with the cream of the cream of today's cosmologists, physicists, philosophers, theologians, psychologists, etc. on all of the Big Questions surrounding a trilogy of broad topics – Cosmos; Consciousness; Meaning. The trilogy collectively dealt with reality, space and time, mind and consciousness, aliens, theology and on and on and on. Here are a few of my comments on one of the general topics covered, ESP and related psychic subjects.

 

Does ESP Make Sense 1?

 

Does ESP make sense? Well if ESP made any sense, if say telepathy actually existed, then I probably wouldn't be here writing this in the here and now. Why? If most people sensed and knew what I was thinking about them, especially drivers, they would have long since beaten me about the head and body until I was a bloody pulp. In a more general vein, I'm not aware of any assault or any crime involving violence that can be attributed to anyone reacting to what anyone else was thinking. I mean what if you walked down the street of some fundamentalist Islamic town thinking all sorts of nasty things about Allah and company. Nothing would happen. As the saying goes, "you can't go to jail for what you are thinking" because thoughts are private. Given the number of people thinking nasty thoughts that would seriously offend other people, probably millions of such occurrences per day, yet nothing transpires as a result, would seem to discredit the idea of ESP or telepathy as a viable phenomena.

 

Does ESP Make Sense 2?

 

If ESP made any sense, how could teachers guard against students cheating on exams? How could the military protect highly classified documents? How could you protect yourself from others finding out the most intimate details of your love letters, you bank account numbers, the contents of your will, and associated privacy issues? There's been a lot of angst recently displayed over the issues of electronic snooping, but I don't seem to recall any concern over ESP as being part of the everyday tool-kit used for terrorism; diplomatic, corporate or military espionage; or as a ways and means used by criminals to further their get-rich-quick schemes. If ESP were legit, well blackmail would really be rampant.

 

Does ESP Make Sense 3?

 

If ESP/Telepathy/Remote Viewing and related psychic phenomena really existed it would make for an absolutely level playing field since all knowledge and all secrets would be in theory equally available to all. Even your most private thoughts wouldn't be private any more. We don't seem to have a level playing field - never have; not now; never will.

There are various absurdities of things that would have to have been documented but haven't been, like levitation. What hasn't been documented is prisoners floating out of their prison courtyards to freedom. Surely that should of happened at least once!

Speaking of prisoners, if there were really such a thing as mind-over-matter then prisoners could mentally unlock their handcuffs and prison cell doors. You could mentally pick door-locks and bank vault safe locks, or maybe just float valuables from where they are to where you are. The law could never trace murder to you if you murdered at a distance by say giving your victim a mind-over-matter heart attack. There's no shortage of criminal mischief you could get up to. I don't recall any court cases where mind-over-matter was established as the ways-and-means of doing the crime.

If there were such a thing as precognition then we'd all be billionaires. Or, perhaps one might like to argue that all billionaires past and present have had or currently have precognition and they just like to keep that their little family secret.

In short, you could take any of the various individual phenomena that collectively make up all things psychic and come up with things that could and should eventuate as a consequence, yet don't.

 

Does ESP Make Sense 4?

 

Let's explore the notion that mind-over-matter exists. What sort of things might we expect to have been the case if such a concept were really true and a property of the mind that is part and parcel of each and every one of us, especially if it were non-physical and could violate the laws, principles and relationships of physics.

 

Well one question that comes to mind is why NASA didn't employ mind power instead of chemical rockets to send humans into space and to the Moon? It would have saved the taxpayer millions and millions. Related, why do planes require aviation gas or jet fuel? Surely the pilot could just use mind power to get passengers or cargo from place A to place B. In fact you could commute to work in your car on an empty tank!

 

I gather you could supply all the energy requirements for your home, supply the heat and light the lights, just cause those electrons to flow, all with just a flick of your mental power and abilities. For that matter, what need of the Large Hadron Collider when physicists could accelerate and slam particles together using just their minds?

 

If your mind had control over chemistry, there would be no excuse for the obesity epidemic. You could smoke without fear and drink like a fish. For that matter, you could turn lead into gold!

 

Sports wouldn't be very sporting-like. A routine fly ball would be willed by the batter to become a home run. A baseball pitcher would be invincible game after game since his mind would control the twisting flightpath of the ball instead of relying on aerodynamics. In golf every shot would be a hole-in-one; in tenpin bowling every ball bowled would be a strike; in basketball every toss would go through the hoops. Chess on the other hand might still be aboveboard.

 

Any condemned convict could ensure their execution would be negated. The rope breaks; the rifle bullets miss; the lethal cocktail of chemicals turn into harmless substances; the neck is mightier than the sword or the guillotine.

 

If you were so inclined, you could change the wording on documents to benefit you, change a one dollar bill into a one hundred dollar bill, or alter the actual appearance of playing cards and thus never loose a game.

 

History would certainly be different. If Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan had applied mind-over-matter abilities to their war efforts, they would have won World War Two in a matter of just weeks - or less.

 

Seriously, all these 'what if" scenarios imply that mind-over-matter must have a physical mechanism since in each and every case matter and energy is being manipulated. If you do believe in ESP and related psychic phenomena, like mind-over-matter, yet you can't come up with a physical explanation that independents can verify, well okay, you do have an escape clause. You could be a virtual being in a simulated universe and all psi phenomena is just programmed software.

 

Does ESP Reveal the Nonphysical?

 

For ESP to reveal something about the non-physical, one must first demonstrate that ESP actually exists. Since ESP has not been so demonstrated in any peer-reviewed scientific journal, since if it had been there would be no need to have these discussions on "Closer to Truth", then the bona-fide existence of ESP is still up for grabs. While there is a near total lack of evidence for the establishment of ESP, there is lots of evidence that points in the direction that ESP doesn't exist. There has to be an actual mechanism that links the sender or the target with the receiver. Claiming that there is a non-physical mechanism that is beyond detection is a cop-out. One can claim all manner of phenomena but when asked to put-up-or-shut-up one just says that it has a non-physical explanation which nobody can actually pin down. As to what that non-physical mechanism is, it's just pure pie-in-the-sky mysticism. It's not scientific to a scientist; it's not acceptable to the average layperson either. It's like claiming to have an invisible friend but not being able to convince anyone because nobody else, including the claimant, can actually see, touch, taste, smell or hear anything tangible about this invisible entity. Okay, there has to be an actual physical mechanism for ESP if ESP is to claim to have some sort of validity. Alas, as has been more than adequately pointed out, if our brain/mind can detect ESP signals then it must be possible to construct an artificial detector that does the same thing. Further, we can build detectors vastly more sensitive than anything the human sensory apparatus, hence the brain/mind, can detect. Results to date equate to absolute zero. Resorting to a non-physical mechanism is a cop-out; nothing that can be construed to be a physical mechanism can be independently verified.

 

Is ESP a Window on a Larger Reality?

 

For ESP to be taken as a window on a larger reality, one must first prove in an accepted peer-reviewed manner that ESP (and related bits and pieces) actually exists. Now there are some phenomena that don't sit still, phenomena that are so random that it is difficult for investigators to come to terms with their reality or non-reality. Examples are UFOs, ghosts, Bigfoot (Sasquatch), and related. However, ESP doesn't fall into that category. ESP sits still. You have target A and person B or person A and person B and they are both fixed and static. They can be tested again and again. There's nothing hit-or-miss or random about this. Now what is telling about all of this, quite apart from the idea that nobody has an actual clue what the ESP (and related) mechanism is, is that despite thousands of experiments and millions of "I know what I experienced" events, despite the elapse of hundreds of years of these sorts of investigations, nothing has been set in stone. You would think that by now, if there was any structure and substance to the entire validity of the ESP field, that issues would have been settled long ago. The fact that this debate over ESP and the nature therefore of a theoretical larger reality is still going on, is suggestive that nothing is going on. If there were any nuts-and-bolts reality to this whole area of parapsychology, it would have long since been documented and written up in the textbooks and taught to students with as much conviction as the teachings of the reality of those laws of gravity and of motion.




Source by John Prytz

The High Stakes Counter Surveillance Techniques

Before engaging in a discussion concerning counter surveillance techniques a few points must be made clear. If you suspect you're under surveillance or you suspect someone you know is under surveillance, one needs to ascertain this as a fact and not based on speculation or suspect information. The operative word is "suspect".  There are instances when one might genuinely feel they are being watched, when facts state otherwise.  For example one might suspect CIA is spying on them. This is not true because CIA has a mandate of not spying on its citizens within the confines of the territory of United States. Yes CIA does collect economic and business intelligence utilizing various proven spying techniques. However, this information is used to inform, protect or support policies (policy makers) of the United States.

To keep in perspective, there are 16 known USA intelligence agencies outside of CIA like NSA which is the National Security Agency who can spy on citizens, i.e. wire taping their land lines or cell phone lines, or computer traffic. The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act - FISA of 1978 gave many intelligence agencies far reaching authority in efforts to combat acts deemed illegal or against "the homeland".  Under FISA intelligence agencies do not always require a court order to place someone under "electronic surveillance". All they need is probable cause or reasonable suspicion.

When the FISA act is deployed to place someone or companies under surveillance the stakes are high as failure or discovery of the operation may have international or national security implications. Surveillance on level is a very serious. The FISA act enormous power has been amplified post 911. Perhaps in future articles, I may expand on explaining FISA and the implications.

Given surveillance is very high stakes and one needs to be 100% sure surveillance is being used otherwise it could be potentially disastrous and lead to false accusations or damaged credibility at a minimum. Therefore, there is no place for errors or best guesses.

The first question which comes to mind would be why someone would want to put another under surveillance?

1.       National Security

2.       Law Enforcement Investigations

3.       Legal Investigation

4.       Large corporations or businesses seeking to gain competitive advantage over another

5.       Disgruntled spouses or friends who have hired a Private Detective or PI

Item 4 will serve as a primary reason for surveillance for the purposes of this article.

How do you protect yourself or your company against unscrupulous surveillance techniques?

1.       Determine exact reason for surveillance

2.       Determine who is doing the surveillance, i.e. referring only to items 4 above

3.       Utilize either human intelligence or counter surveillance gear to thwart the attack

There are situations whereby people might be inclined to use all manner of tactics ethical or unethical to survey a target. There are no hard and fast rules. What is important is protecting your rights and personal security or property.

What might a surveillance team use?

1.       Motion detection activated Surveillance Cameras

2.       Hidden Audio Devices

3.       Hidden Spy Cameras inside pens, clocks, calculators, etc.

4.       Vehicle or land surveillance

5.      Human intelligence when someone is actually monitoring the target in question

The key to good surveillance operation is based stealth and concealment of activities, so as not to allow target to become suspicious. There are times when surveillance operations are overt which in itself is a tactic used to install fear and panic.

As surveillance operations are initiated as a means to collect information on a target, a very effective counter surveillance technique would be to employ "disinformation".  Information is information. How information is used or how it is perceived is an entirely different story and can be manipulated.  One can have good intelligence - raw information. However, the information transmutes into poor intelligence based on misunderstanding, misrepresentations or biases. In other words, the key is to collect objective intelligence not based on opinions, but facts.  Surveillance is a method of obtaining information or intelligence and should be treated accordingly.

This is a hypothetic situation:  You're a businessman or businesswoman and one of your competitors is attempting or infringing on your intellectual rights or business property, i.e., products, information or other valuable assets.

One day while in a board meeting you notice an object which has been taped surreptitiously underneath the board room table. What is it?

1.       If you suspect it some form of audio transmitter, do not touch it

2.       Leave the room

3.       Instead of calling in the "sweeping team" to remove the device immediately  do not remove it

4.       Knowing the device is there can give you an edge and you can feed the audio device any information you so please.

Sometimes surveillance operations do not adhere to viewing intelligence collected objectively. Instead they let their biases or zeal to get the job done lead to erroneous conclusions, based on what they believed. This type knowledge can be used against a surveillance attempt.

There many techniques which can use as counter surveillance measures and may be discussed in future articles. The first objective is to factually and objectively determine one is in fact under surveillance. Once ascertained then and only then can appropriate counter surveillance actions be taken.

If one is under any type of proven surveillance the party surveying must have – what they have concluded – is a justifiable reason for deploying both money and manpower for the operation.

If truly under surveillance, know there are ways to counter efforts of surveillance tactics used against you in an attempt to attack your person or property. Keep in mind surveillance is a very high stakes operation which could have serious implications both for the one being surveyed and the surveyor.

If surveillance is being conducted by an agency, Private Detective or business competitor the situation does merit investigation and possible counter measures. Determine surveyor's objectives (outside of the obvious) and you have a better chance of protecting yourself. Like a good chess player try to think a few moves ahead of your opponent. Remember be objective and try not to let emotions cloud your judgment. Admittedly this advice is not easy to adhere especially if one is under duress.




Source by sfactor

Why Buy Property on Lake Placid, Texas?

If you are thinking to buy or sell property within the area of Lake Placid then perhaps spending a few minutes in reading the article below will be a worthwhile investment of your time.

Texas is considered to be the largest state in terms of area among the lower 48 and with a population of nearly 26.5 million residents, it is ranked second, behind California. With constant signs of population growth, many seemingly fruitful real estate opportunities have become available. According to the Texas quarterly housing report, there are clear indications of a booming market. That said if you are contemplating obtaining a real estate license then the state of Texas should be on that list, and fairly close to the top I might add. You can complete the course relatively quickly and take the exams online. It may only take you a month or so to acquire the license however once you have obtained your license you can hit the ground running in this hot market.

According to a recent study, the cities that have endured the highest growth rates include the Woodlands, Austin and San Marcos. And counties like Denton and Frisco have shown some of the more remarkable inclines in the entire state. Another area that appears to be flying under the radar is the city of New Braunfels and neighboring Lake Placid, which we will further have a look into in the following sections.

With flourishing and thriving neighborhoods across Texas, many folks have been looking at Lake Placid in terms of real estate investments and properties. It is a quintessential body of water for those individuals who love the great outdoors. With a variety of activities including camping, boating, fishing and swimming, Lake Placid can easily become a respectable candidate when it comes to real estate investing. The lake itself is based on the Guadalupe River, which is located a few miles from Lake McQueeney, which is another area experiencing steady growth rates. If you are a fan of activities such as boating then you can take advantage of the boat ramp, which is free for public access. Because this lake has attracted many individuals who love the outdoors, several homes and properties have been cropping up.

Most if not all the homes on Lake Placid consist of fascinating views of the lake. The construction of the homes ranges to some degree from contemporary to the more traditional. Several buyers who have recently purchased property in this region are even building their own custom made homes. The amenities are widespread and provide the maximum amount of comfort. The majority of the lake front homes contain private boat docks and secondary outlets for Jet Ski storage. Some of the lake homes even have upstairs patios, which offer some more breathtaking views of the lake and the surrounding area. These may run a bit higher as far as the cost is considered however with lush amenities and extravagant scenery and views, the property value can potentially soar. The current prices of real estate in Lake Placid are generally affordable yet with increasing demands this may not be the case down the line. To avoid making any regretful decisions later on, the time to invest in real estate property and homes on Lake Placid is now. If you plan to buy today it won't be very difficult for you to find a good deal on homes for sale in Lake McQueeney or Lake Placid areas.

If you are in the market for affordable and quality homes in a serene and peaceful environment then add Lake Placid to your list of prospective real estate (http://realestate.about.com/) opportunities. And with an ample amount of outdoor activities and breathtaking views of the lake, the decision should be a no brainer.




Source by Peter Fried

Going stateside this autumn/winter: Nottinghams S&P CASUALS

A Notts company continues to thrive within the global marketplace following their recent opening of their China office;  S&P Casuals Ltd have now opened their illustrious New York City office.

Their in-house brands Soulstar, Superfly, Advocate, Lads Rags, Advocate and Fly Guy are also soaring in high street recognition, which goes some way to prove their overall popularity and success.

As they continue to heighten their stature in the international fashion scene, this fashion design, import, export & distribution company, who began on a humble market stall in Doncaster, back in 1976, seemingly know no bounds and are relentlessly embracing the future!

Speaking on behalf of S&P Casuals Ltd, samples & showroom manager Ashley Severn said this…

"Since I've worked here, the company seems to have grown so quickly, it's somehow hard to imagine.  Just over the past 10 months, we've seen offices open in China and America and honestly, it's really exciting to wonder where we'll pop up next.  Anyone who visits our website (www.spcasuals.com) will usually comment on just how fresh and relevant our in-house designs are, so it's no surprise that we expect to be well recieved in the US"

Preparing to launch their autumn/winter 2010 range, S&P are striving to self-improve once more, especially after the success of last seasons range which was received with such high acclaim, it gained them something of an infamous profile amidst their competitors.

So world, watch this space 'cause S&P Casuals are truly driven it seems!





Source by Ant Standring

Rookie Guide On How To Buy A Muscle Car: Determine Your Price Range And Payment Method

Now let's dig into determining what a reasonable price range would be for a particular car, and then go about deciding how to pay for it.

Price Range:
Determining the price range on a major purchase, whether it be a muscle car, a fighter jet, or a dishwasher generally comes down to evaluating your personal financial situation and determining what you can afford.  We'll assume that you already understand that and will stick to determining the price range that the make and model car you are looking at may fall in.

So just how do you really determine the price range for a classic muscle car?  Simple – you need to take a look at what the market thinks it's worth.  Just like real estate, muscle car values are determined by what the market thinks the cars are worth, not by calculating the sum cost of all of their parts.   The price that people are currently paying for muscle cars is key.  It's a subjective thing that relies on supply and demand.  Also, unlike 99% of modern cars, 1960's and '70's muscle cars are really not going down in value anymore.   Their value bottomed out long ago and has been on the rise ever since.  Over the past few years we've seen somewhat of a bubble in values, but they still remain quite high.

Now that we understand how value ranges are established for a make and model, it's clear to see why understanding how you will use your muscle car is critical when doing your car shopping (refer to our previous post for more details).  If you are planning to have a weekend funmobile, a mid-price range car is going to serve you quite well, and you may even be able to go cheaper.  If you're buying a car for an investment a mid-price range car is likely the LOWEST value of car you would go with.  Remember, the unique cars, the popular cars, and the all original cars are going to be at the high end of the price range for that particular make and model.

To see what the market thinks various make and model cars are worth based on their varying condition, simply visit Keith Martin's Collector Car Price Tracker.  It's the best resource on the web to get an idea of the trends in the industry based on SALE prices of cars, and you can look at values over the last several years on a model by model basis.  We offer a free one-month membership to Keith Martin's Collector Market simply by signing up for our newsletter.  Remember, HOW you plan to use the car is a must when looking at car values.  You may come to the conclusion after looking at the sale prices cars have gone for that you need to look at a different make/model, or change your plans in how you will use the car.

In addition to Keith Martin's Collector Car market, start taking notice of all the prices listed in the Classifieds section here at The MuscleCar Place and the other online places as well.  Most asking prices for cars are consistent with what the market will bring (give or take), so you should at least be able to develop a trend.

Payment Method:
Now that you have the make/model down, how you're going to use the car determined, and have a good idea of what the car will cost you to buy it's time to put your payment method together.  Do this BEFORE striking a deal for the car.  Being prepared with information in this step is key to making a purchase that is fair to both you and the car owner, so do your homework ahead of time.

Most dealers do offer financing of some type as a courtesy, but in all honestly the best payment method is the old fashioned one: cash.  Buying a car in cash will help you do a couple of things:

1) It will allow you to negotiate the best price possible
2) It will secure you from (potentially) being upside down in a loan – and remove other risk as well.

If you are buying a car for an investment, the car really can be considered part of your overall portfolio (just as real estate might be).  Never cash out a 401k early to buy a muscle car (or anything for that matter), but instead use cash available on hand or transfer it from other cash investments.  Remember, while muscle car values have been doing well in the past 10 years investment growth is not a guarantee.  Bill Paweski at Arizona Classics routinely recommends to his clients to be mindful of the market – and to be prepared to hang on to the car until the market is ready before even thinking about selling it (which is another good reason to purchase in cash)!

Wrap-up:
Doing your homework up-front will save you a lot of pain later on.  Now is not the time to shortcut the process.  The last thing you'd want to happen would be to end up hating the muscle car that you purchased, and if you follow the process laid out here that will not happen.  Go for it!

In our next and final post in this series we will discuss how to evaluate the car, set up insurance, and purchase!




Source by Robert Kibbe

Fishing Holidays in the UK – Cottages and Lodges

Most people, including myself, associate Hoseasons with Boating Holidays on places like the Norfolk Broads or on the River Thames,  which I should point out also make fantastic fishing holidays as well. I was pleasantly surprised to find they also have a large range of static holidays in the UK, Channel Islands and some in France. Hoseasons also have a selection of holiday parks on the website which are mainly Caravan types sites - which also have some interesting looking holidays with fishing thrown in.

Everyone's talking about the new light emitting Esca Lures.

Buy these exciting new Esca Lures online at - www.escalure.co.uk

You can search the Hoseasons website in several ways. Firstly you can do a quick search by country and region - England, Scotland, Wales, Channel Islands then by region North, South, East etc. Secondly you can search by types (Parks, Lodges, Cottages, Boats). Unfortunately you cannot search for holidays with fishing. To find the fishing facilities you need to go to the location and click on the Accommodation Info tab to see if fishing is an Accommodation Feature. To see all the sites that have fishing on-site click here. Some of the other locations claim to have fishing nearby, which in some cases is several miles away (which to me defeats the object of a relaxing fishing holiday). Some of the locations indicate fishing with a + sign, which evidently is an extra charge for fishing, which in most cases is no more than £5 per day.

One venue that caught my eye was Woodlakes in Stowbridge, Norfolk which hosts 4 wooden lodges for up to 6 people per lodge. It is situated on 66 acres of beautiful and peaceful countryside around 5 fishing lakes. One of the lakes is a 12 acre Championship lake, which I assume is for match fishing. The lakes are evidently stocked with Carp (up to 40lbs in weight), Roach, Tench, Bream, Rudd, Perch, Pike and Eels (the eels are probably not stocked, as they generally find there own way into lakes). The lodges are named: Cedar Lodge, Cedar Deluxe Lodge, Spruce Lodge and Willow Lodge. They all have TV, Kitchen, Fridge, Microwave, Bath/Shower, Bed Linen, Central Heating facilities.

What I like the look of is the lodges are very close to the lakes, so you can fish virtually from your lodge landing stage. The prices for the lodges range from £272 to £747 depending on the time of year and which lodge you require. As well as fishing Woodlakes is an excellent base for exploring the quaint market towns of King's Lynn, Downham Market, Swaffham and Wisbech. For those of you that like me, need to entertain the family then the famous golden beaches and harbours of the North Norfolk coast, a host of pretty villages, bird sanctuaries and nature reserves are also close at hand.

The Lodges and Cottages on the Hoseasons site also offer great 3 and 4 day deals. If you can go from Monday to Thursday for example you will find the prices reduced quite a bit. Also they do late deals, so if you can wait until the last minute you may get a bargain.

If you are looking for a coarse fishing holiday in the uk where you can go with friends or family and relax, fish and explore in wonderful surroundings, then take a look at the fishing lodges, fishing cottages, caravans and parks that hoseasons have to offer.

At the time of writing this I am in the process of booking a holiday in May at Cedar Lodge for a 4 night break which totals to about £270. I will let you know how I get on.

Summary of "Fishing Holidays in the UK - Cottages and Lodges"Fishing Boots - How To Choose The Perfect Boot

These boots were made for fishing!

Angling has come quite a way over the last decade or two. I remember when the only real choice for footwear when going fishing was a pair of Wellingtons, Doc's, or something ex military. Nowadays, you can't move for ankle boots, low boots, high boots, field boots, high boots, walled boots and even moon boots!

Lots to choose from then, but what points do you need to think about before making your purchase? The main point for consideration should be the type of angling you intend to be doing, and also a crucial factor, the length of your sessions, as this will dictate how long you'll have them on for at a time.

To start off with, let's take a look at what types of footwear are best suited to which types of angling. If you're a stalking, roving or mobile type of angler, you will be better off looking at some of the low cut boots for the majority of your fishing. These will be comfortable for long periods spent walking, and being more like a trainer in design will be much better suited to climbing trees and scrambling down riverbanks. Most low cut boots are waterproof and breathable, but if it's likely you are going to be coming into contact with the water on a regular basis, a slightly higher cut might be more suitable - especially if you won't be doing much climbing.

A good design to look at in such circumstances would be a field boot. A field boot offers a rubberised lower part of the boot, so it's totally waterproof and easy to clean, whilst the upper wall is made of fabric to ensure comfy walking. One thing to look out for, though, is whether the lining is fixed, i.e. stitched in and part of the boot, or removable in that it can be taken out of the boot altogether. Whilst those with a removable liner are great for session fishing, or as a winter boot to keep your feet nice and warm, they aren't too good for trying to walk long distances as the liners - which are often very thick - tend to move around within the boot itself.

An ankle, low, trail or high boot will usually have a fully stitched in liner, so they give you the best of both worlds, good comfort with good traction. It's probably the case that in time you'll get a few different types of footwear to suit the season. My preference for summer is usually a skate type trainer which is quite well protected but allows me to climb trees and stalk comfortably. In the winter I'll tend to be night fishing so will go with a pair of field type fishing boots with a removable liner. In the day, I'll wear them all the time but when in the sleeping bag at night, I'll whip them off and take out the liners. This way I can get them on is a second if the rods go.

For the angler who wants the benefit of comfort, needs to be able to walk good distances, and who will also come into contact with the water quite a bit, you then have the extreme type boot which rides quite a way up the shin. They will be much the same design as the low or ankle boot but, basically, allows you to go into much deeper water without getting your feet wet. Obviously, they are quite big and cumbersome and take quite a bit of lacing up, so they wouldn't be suited to night fishing, but would be ideal for the roving angler in the winter.

It's worth bearing in mind that most angling manufacturers who now offer boots are only taking their lead from the hiking and trail boot industry, and as such, in many cases, you can get just as much bang for your buck - if not more - by purchasing a good hiking or trekking boot from any number of long established brands who have been designing very similar boots for much longer!

Whilst comfort and warmth are usually the main factors people consider, for the session angler, ease of use has to come into it as well. If you're bivvied up on a session the boots are going to be on and off quite a bit, so in such circumstances you might wish to take a look at some of the moon boot styles, which offer good insulating comfort, but have no laces so are much easier to take on and off during the session and during the night.

As a final note, it's worth getting some decent socks at the same time. Good boots are nothing without a good pair of socks to go with them!

Adventurous Holiday Gift Ideas

Christmas time has come around again, which means another round of gift ideas for all of the important people in your life. If you've exhausted all of the traditional shirts, books, jewelry, and jumpers, try out some of these exciting alternatives. No one will expect these 'experience' gifts from you--they are the perfect surprise. No matter the person or people you need to buy for, the right experience is out there. Make a list of your recipients' interests and you'll be sure to hit on the ideal voucher for each.

Everyone's talking about the new light emitting Esca Lures.

Buy these exciting new Esca Lures online at - www.escalure.co.uk

- Hot air balloon ride

A hot air balloon ride is the perfect romantic gift for two. There is nothing more stunning than England from the air, any time of the year. There are many launch locations within easy reach of London. Champagne is a traditional part of ballooning, so for an excellent presentation of your gift buy some bubbly to give along with the voucher.

- Sailing and fishing charters

A chartered sailing or fishing trip to southern climates is the perfect winter escape for the sporting person on your list. Consider the islands off the coast of Africa, or perhaps the coast of South Australia, among other equally appealing options. This gift is sure to be a hit no matter the location chosen. For a fun presentation buy a pair of sunglasses to gift along with a description of their trip.

- Horse riding

There are many horse riding vacations of all sorts offered in the UK and in Europe. Horse riding is a relaxing and fun way to see the scenery in places such as the coast of Iceland, Spain's Andalusia, and Italy's Tuscany. Ride from vineyard to chateau in France's Loire Valley. In the UK the Scottish highlands provide treks among castles and ruins. The ideal location is available to fit the tastes of any equestrian or aspiring equestrian on your list. Try giving them a pair of riding gloves when you announce their gift and its locale.

- Hand gliding

For the truly daring and spontaneous person in your life, try gifting hang gliding lessons. There are many schools in the south of England especially, the perfect location for a chance to hang glide over the beautiful South Downs. South Wales is also a popular hang gliding destination. Give the gift of excitement and adrenaline combined with the tranquility of solo flight. A great way to present your gift could be a map of the UK with your chosen hang gliding school pinpointed.

Commonly Used Fishing Equipments

When you are starting out as a fisherman in the UK, it is best to start with the most simplistic form of fishing equipment. It really doesn't require a lot of fishing gear to go fishing. However, a rod or pole is indeed a necessary piece of equipment. The fishing pole is used to suspend the line from which hangs the bait for the fish. Bamboo, fiberglass and carbon fiber are all basic materials used to make the poles. The fishing rod is used for the same purpose but is somewhat more sophisticated. They have various lengths and also vary in action. The sizes are available from a 24-inch rod to 20 foot one. The casting is better with the longer rod.

There are many different types of fishing rods. A carbon fiber pole is a more technologically advanced pole, which is usually used for coarse fishing in Europe. Fly fishing rods are made to cast artificial flies. They are part of the fishing equipment used to catch salmon in the UK. Many fishermen in the UK use this salmon fishing equipment each year for a successful catch. Normally salmon is fished from the rivers in England, although it can be done well in the sea also. In addition to the right rod, you will need waders for the majority of UK Rivers in order to get to the best fishing places.

When you are searching for sea fishing equipment in the UK, try to find sea rods made to be used on the open sea. These rods will be built stronger and longer than the other kinds. For sharks and other huge game, specialty rods are designed. Be sure that the deep-sea fishing rod that you have selected can hold up to the pressure of the resistant larger fish when they are hooked. Also be certain that it is constructed from material such as fiberglass or graphite, which will resist corrosion from the salt air.

Every other part of your tackle has to be able to fit with your rod. This includes the lines, lures, reels and hooks. If you aren't sure about your choices, get advice from a more experienced fisherman. You need to bear in mind that no matter what kind of fish you are trying to catch in the UK, you have to have the right fishing equipment to be successful.

Seeking Fishing Equipment For Sale

In order to find the right fishing equipment for sale, whether you are a UK fisher or are fishing in another country's waters, it is essential to know what you need. Many hunting and fishing equipment shops worldwide are stocked with quality, brand name supplies. You can fish or you can be a fisherman. An amateur fisher can make a fishing pole, but he shouldn't necessarily expect fish successfully with it.

Most stores that sell fishing supplies have expensive and cheap products. You can purchase fishing supplies such as rods and reels from about seven to thirty five pounds. You need a rod and reel that enables you to catch different size fish. Sporting goods stores sell spin fishing equipment and fly fishing equipment. They sell rods, reels, wholesale fishing tackle, fishing knives and accessories like hooks, bobbers, sinkers, swivels and bait. A person would choose different fishing supplies for small lake and river fishing than for sea fishing. At these stores, you can get tools and supplies for every kind of fishing including ice fishing.

When you are looking for fishing equipment, also consider the boat you may be using and pay some attention to what you will be wearing. Is your trip going to be a long one lasting for days on end or a short simple same-day fishing trip? You need clothing for keeping you the warmest and the driest that you can be and you need the proper boat and boating supplies for the waters in which you plan to fish. You need to look at several different stores in order to be content with the products you purchase. Sometimes, you can find discounts on equipment for sale for freshwater and saltwater fishing, if you buy your fishing gear in bulk.

It would be smart to find a reputable store that has been in business for a while. You can get detailed facts from reviews and information online or you can visit a shop and see for yourself. Compare prices as well as product quality and always opt for a business that will stand behind their supplies. It also matters what kind of service you receive. How did the employees treat you? Were the items easily accessible? Was the store clean and orderly? It is true for UK fishing shoppers and those in other countries: you can find the right fishing equipment for sale if you know how to look for it.

Find the best and the cheapest fishing tackle here at www.innovativefishingtackle.co.uk




Source by Escalure Fishing Tackle

10 SIMPLE TIPS TO CONSERVE AIR AND DIVE LONGER

There are very few more frustrating occurrences in scuba diving as having to abort the dive due to lack of air, while everybody else is still having fun down there. Being able to save air as you dive is one of the most important steps to become a good diver. Here are some tips that can help us improve our diving skills

Proper Weighting

Carrying extra weight makes a huge difference on air consumption- you have to inflate your BCD more thus increase drag, and your body's lower part tends to sink down, while upper part rise up- which increases drag furthermoreSimple buoyancy check before diving with a new gear, at a new area, or after along time without diving should do the trick

Bad Bouyancy- Not Using Your BCD Can Couse a Lot of Damage to the Environment

Buoyancy

Try to achieve and maintain neutral buoyancy as soon as you reach your desired depth. Simple trick is to try hover – breath normally, add minimal amount of air to the BCD, inhale fully to elevate yourself off the bottom and return to normal breathing

Move Slowly

There's hardly ever a need to dive fast- you use up energy and air a lot quicker, and probably scare marine creatures as you do so

Avoid Using Your Arms

Arm muscles are weaker than those in our legs, plus, arms and hands don’t propel us as much as our legs and fins do. Use your hands for signaling, snapping photos rather than swimming

Streamline

Keep all hoses secured, arms tucked, and try to swim as horizontal as possible, thus minimize drag, keep yourself and the equipment off the bottom and avoid damaging the marine environment.

Breathing

Don’t skip a breath. Breathe at the same tempo, long inhalations and exhalations

It's recommended to inhale and exhale as if whistling or sucking air. You can also pick a nice tune to help you breath at the same rhythm

Use Familiar Equipment

To be more relaxed and feel in control, buy your own equipment. You'll also need to make very few changes on estimating weights as mentioned in paragraph 1

Relax

Easy to say, but some newbie diver have a natural fear when diving. The more you dive the more confidence you gain, and the more you realize there's nothing to it

Practice

It all comes down to it. The more you dive the better you get. Consider participating in a Pick Performance Buoyancy Course that fine tunes you buoyancy skills

Improve your buoyancy skills - PPB course

Dive Shallow

If you still use up air a lot quicker than your buddies, dive slightly shallower, where the air you breathe is less dense and allows you to dive longer




Source by tobi1kanoby

HOW TO FIND VERIFIABLE CRUDE OIL SELLERS

Crude oil is becoming hard to find and getting a genuine supplier is even much more harder. With the crude oil business being one of the world's largest and easily one of the most profitable, there are a whole host of companies and agents in the fray posing as sellers of this black substance. That said, there are various other factors at play, which determine the extent to which companies or agents can go to be in the supply business.

Firstly, there are several kinds of crude oil ranging from: Brent crude, Bonny Light, Forcados Crude, Saudi Light Crude, etc. The specification of these products are relatively different and their demand and prices also varies. Amongst these crude oil, the one in higher demand is the bonny light crude oil which is said to have a higher API gravity (low specific gravity) and it is mostly produced in the Niger Delta basin of Nigeria. The very low sulfur content of Bonny Light crude makes it a highly desired grade for its low corrosiveness to refinery infrastructure and the lower environmental impact of its byproducts in refinery effluent. However, a few countries have been said to have this crude oil in abundance, these countries are Nigeria, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, USA, etc. Some of these countries have a very large demand in their own country so buying from them might pose some difficulty. Nigeria is still known to be the most flexible country with regards to buying crude oil if you are fortunate to find into genuine sellers.

Finding a verifiable seller in the Nigerian market is very simple if you follow the steps. Firstly, you must decide on whom to buy from since there are several sellers in the Nigerian market. If you choose to buy from the government that means you'll be dealing with the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC). Buying from this corporation is safe but you'll be faced with a whole lot of challenges like meeting up with their policies which are extremely strict. You could also choose to buy from private sellers like Shell, AP and Chevron, but buying from independent sellers that already have bulk allocation from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation is usually the best.

Having said, the big question now is how to get this verifiable sellers?. Although, in the parallel market of Oil industry it is the buyer who always should come clean first and disclose its profile, want and ability and should also be willing to provide documents and most importantly exercise cautious. There is a lot of fake sellers out there, and quite simply - the watchword is due-diligence. Without wishing to appear disaparaging, anyone who enters such markets without an in-depth knowledge of the dynamics and mechanics of the market itself, with no experience, is asking for trouble. Due diligence is the only sure way of making sure - how well do you really know this counterparty? In a Due Diligence you need to know if the "seller" is a duly registered company expecially in some countries but dealing locally, or having someone to correspond with the sellers in the country you are buying the product from is very important.

Furthermore, you should be careful about sellers claiming they are able to supply extremely large quantity of crude oil as most of the independent oil sellers have a limited amount they can supply per month. Another note is that there is no fix pricing of crude oil, I have seen many so called sellers advertising selling crude oil at fix pricing or claiming they can supply at a certain too-good-to be true prices. You should be wary of such people and no genuine seller requires you to commit any amount of money prior to completion of the deal or will require you to pay any upfront whatsoever!




Source by Sol Ajaezi