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How to Meet a Wealthy Husband For Free Online

Meet a wealthy husband for marriage is becoming more and more popular for thousands of single women today. This article will show you how to find a rich husband online for free at the internet singles sites. That's right. These singles services will connect you with that rich guy. You won't pay any money for using online dating sites to find your dream man. It takes you a few minutes to find that special someone. There are thousands of single women looking for rich men on the Internet. How do they find such wealthy husbands? Keep reading and you will find out how to find him. The internet singles websites are the place that has many rich guys there. You can choose which one to contact with. Do they say that they are rich or wealthy? How do you know if they are rich?

Who are wealthy men?

Wealthy men are the ones who drive expensive cars, live in luxury villas, and even fly on a private jet. They are either successful in their business or get inherited the wealth from their grandparents or parents. Many of these rich men are single and married. They know that women who are attracted to them because of their wealth. Some of them are single while some are currently married. They usually post their personal ads through the Internet dating services. This is the place you find a rich husband. There are two types of dating services, pay and free singles sites. We are talking about totally free single dating services so you don't cost a cent for using such sites. So, go ahead and post your personal profiles at 100% free dating sites for men and women to go from there.

You just register your profile at free singles sites to meet a wealthy husband there. Some of these dating services allow you to search for income figure while others don't. If you search for an income figure, then try to find the rich men who have the most income figure. Some wealthy men don't post their real yearly income there. So, sometimes it does not mean so. If you have not found your rich husband yet and wish to find one, then online singles sites are the best solution. There are other places like country clubs, expensive restaurants, bars, VIP clubs, and so on you can go there to find a wealthy man. However, none of them are as convenient as the Internet single sites. You just sit at home and search for him through the online dating services.

If you are one of single women looking for wealthy husbands, then you should take action to find create a profile online at totally free singles dating sites. It does not cost you anything for trying it. There is no hidden fee. You are not required to enter your credit card or something. Nowadays, there are thousands or even millions of single women seeking rich men on the Internet. Don't miss this opportunity while you are still young. Life is short. If you have a dream to marrying a rich husband, then make sure you reach your dream. Many single girls just like yourself are pursuing a wealthy guy online. Some of them are successful and some are not, certainly. 

100% Free singles dating sites are the solution to meet a rich husband online. You are the one who can make your dream come true. Good luck!




Source by Jenny Willston

Blingbling Handbag Trend Spring & Summer 2010

2009 has gone by, and 2010 has come up with new trends in fashion world for us. What  is hot in handbag this year? Let me tell you now. "Blingbling wind" has come back to fashion world in spring and summer 2010. You may remember blingbling elements were widely applied to shoes, bag, clothing as an important accessories. Blingbling handbags are a good choice for girls  to display personalities as well as helping you get extra attention. To catch up with this trend to be fashionable, take action at once in picking a blingbling handbag.

Jessica Simpson is  leaving in the rain with her new $1800 Valentino bag that she just purchased from Bergdorf Goodman in New York City.

Lindsay Lohan with very spray tanned feet and blingbling is leaving the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel before taking off to Van Nuys Airport and boarding a private Jet to NYC.

 Seeing that our actresses has headed for the new trend in handbag, what are you still waiting for and looking for?  Now have a look at the bag collection I recomend to you in this bag trend.

This gradient red sequins bag is another classic model coming from Miu Miu. Love it? Then pick it to go to a party now.

Designed by Halston Heritage this hard sapphire blue clutch looks very luxurious and fashionable.

This black Marc Jacobs bag inlaid with silver sequins sparkles with diamond-like light.

This Miu Miu bag with black and silver sequins, classic rectangular lock successfully creats a distinguished sense.

The last bag I want to recommend to you is this Marni bag full of retro flavor. It is especially suitable for office ladies.




Source by barbrine

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Australian Air Craft Charters, does not own or supervise jets. Instead we've built an exclusive model which unites the Private Jet Charter, carriers into a consistent network authorize our clients and Members with right of entry to the optimum, most comfortable private jets.

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Simply put Australian Air Craft Charters, puts the freedom of choice firmly into the hands of our valued clients. Private Jet Charter, offers an Outstanding charter flight experience. You can choose an aircraft from our large self-managed fleet or one from our affiliates.

Our Australian Air Craft Charters, offers a private productive and expeditious way to travel. Private Jet Charter, every day for help in fulfilling their supplemental aircraft and charter flight needs. View-your-local top-rated aircraft directory or take advantage of floating aircraft listings and empty leg jets for your best price one-way charters nationwide.

New to private charter, aircraft and jets? Private Jet Charter, charter experts can recommend and discuss the most appropriate comfortable or popular aircraft for your mission or provide the best available if you desires a certain type or has a charter budget goal.




Source by expert seophp

Satellite television

History

The first satellite television signal was relayed from Europe to the Telstar satellite over North America in 1962. The first geosynchronous communication satellite, Syncom 2, was launched in 1963. The world's first commercial communication satellite, called Intelsat I (nicknamed Early Bird), was launched into synchronous orbit on April 6, 1965. The first national network of satellite television, called Orbita, was created in Soviet Union in 1967, and was based on the principle of using the highly elliptical Molniya satellite for re-broadcasting and delivering of TV signal to ground downlink stations. The first domestic North American satellite to carry television was Canada geostationary Anik 1, which was launched in 1972. ATS-6, the world's first experimental educational and Direct Broadcast Satellite, was launched in 1974. The first Soviet geostationary satellite to carry Direct-To-Home television, called Ekran, was launched in 1976.

Technology

Satellites used for television signals are generally in either naturally highly elliptical (with inclination of +/-63.4 degrees and orbital period of about 12 hours, also known as Molniya orbit) or geostationary orbit 37,000 km (22,300 miles) above the earth equator.

Satellite television, like other communications relayed by satellite, starts with a transmitting antenna located at an uplink facility. Uplink satellite dishes are very large, as much as 9 to 12 meters (30 to 40 feet) in diameter. The increased diameter results in more accurate aiming and increased signal strength at the satellite. The uplink dish is pointed toward a specific satellite and the uplinked signals are transmitted within a specific frequency range, so as to be received by one of the transponders tuned to that frequency range aboard that satellite. The transponder 'retransmits' the signals back to Earth but at a different frequency band (a process known as translation, used to avoid interference with the uplink signal), typically in the C-band (48 GHz) or Ku-band (1218 GHz) or both. The leg of the signal path from the satellite to the receiving Earth station is called the downlink.

A typical satellite has up to 32 transponders for Ku-band and up to 24 for a C-band only satellite, or more for hybrid satellites. Typical transponders each have a bandwidth between 27 MHz and 50 MHz. Each geo-stationary C-band satellite needs to be spaced 2 degrees from the next satellite (to avoid interference). For Ku the spacing can be 1 degree. This means that there is an upper limit of 360/2 = 180 geostationary C-band satellites and 360/1 = 360 geostationary Ku-band satellites. C-band transmission is susceptible to terrestrial interference while Ku-band transmission is affected by rain (as water is an excellent absorber of microwaves at this particular frequency).

The downlinked satellite signal, quite weak after traveling the great distance (see inverse-square law), is collected by a parabolic receiving dish, which reflects the weak signal to the dish focal point. Mounted on brackets at the dish's focal point is a device called a feedhorn. This feedhorn is essentially the flared front-end of a section of waveguide that gathers the signals at or near the focal point and 'conducts' them to a probe or pickup connected to a low-noise block downconverter or LNB. The LNB amplifies the relatively weak signals, filters the block of frequencies in which the satellite TV signals are transmitted, and converts the block of frequencies to a lower frequency range in the L-band range. The evolution of LNBs was one of necessity and invention.

The original C-Band satellite TV systems used a Low Noise Amplifier connected to the feedhorn at the focal point of the dish. The amplified signal was then fed via very expensive and sometimes 50 ohm impedance gas filled hardline coaxial cable to an indoor receiver or, in other designs, fed to a downconverter (a mixer and a voltage tuned oscillator with some filter circuitry) for downconversion to an intermediate frequency. The channel selection was controlled, typically by a voltage tuned oscillator with the tuning voltage being fed via a separate cable to the headend. But this design evolved.

Designs for microstrip based converters for Amateur Radio frequencies were adapted for the 4 GHz C-Band. Central to these designs was concept of block downconversion of a range of frequencies to a lower, and technologically more easily handled block of frequencies (intermediate frequency).

The advantages of using an LNB are that cheaper cable could be used to connect the indoor receiver with the satellite TV dish and LNB, and that the technology for handling the signal at L-Band and UHF was far cheaper than that for handling the signal at C-Band frequencies. The shift to cheaper technology from the 50 Ohm impedance cable and N-Connectors of the early C-Band systems to the cheaper 75 Ohm technology and F-Connectors allowed the early satellite TV receivers to use, what were in reality, modified UHF TV tuners which selected the satellite television channel for down conversion to another lower intermediate frequency centered on 70 MHz where it was demodulated. This shift allowed the satellite television DTH industry to change from being a largely hobbyist one where receivers were built in low numbers and complete systems were expensive (costing thousands of Dollars) to a far more commercial one of mass production.

Direct broadcast satellite dishes are fitted with an LNBF, which integrates the feedhorn with the LNB.

The satellite receiver demodulates and converts the signals to the desired form (outputs for television, audio, data, etc.). Sometimes, the receiver includes the capability to unscramble or decrypt; the receiver is then called an Integrated receiver/decoder or IRD. The cable connecting the receiver to the LNBF or LNB must be of the low loss type RG-6, quad shield RG-6 or RG-11, etc. It cannot be standard RG-59.

Standards

Analog television distributed via satellite is usually sent scrambled or unscrambled in NTSC, PAL, or SECAM television broadcast standards. The analog signal is frequency modulated and is converted from an FM signal to what is referred to as baseband. This baseband comprises the video signal and the audio subcarrier(s). The audio subcarrier is further demodulated to provide a raw audio signal.

If the signal is a digitized television signal or multiplex of signals, it is typically QPSK.

In general, digital television, including that transmitted via satellites, are generally based on open standards such as MPEG and DVB-S or ISDB-S.

The conditional access encryption/scrambling methods include BISS, Conax, Digicipher, Irdeto, Nagravision, PowerVu, Viaccess, Videocipher, and VideoGuard. Many conditional access systems have been compromised.

Categories of usage

There are three primary types of satellite television usage: reception direct by the viewer, reception by local television affiliates, or reception by headends for distribution across terrestrial cable systems.

Direct to the viewer reception includes direct broadcast satellite or DBS and television receive-only or TVRO, both used for homes and businesses including hotels, etc.

Direct broadcast via satellite

Direct broadcast satellite, (DBS) also known as "Direct-To-Home" is a relatively recent development in the world of television distribution. irect broadcast satellite can either refer to the communications satellites themselves that deliver DBS service or the actual television service. DBS systems are commonly referred to as "mini-dish" systems. DBS uses the upper portion of the Ku band, as well as portions of the Ka band.

Modified DBS systems can also run on C-band satellites and have been used by some networks in the past to get around legislation by some countries against reception of Ku-band transmissions.

Most of the DBS systems use the DVB-S standard for transmission. With Pay-TV services, the datastream is encrypted and requires proprietary reception equipment. While the underlying reception technology is similar, the Pay-TV technology is proprietary, often consisting of a Conditional Access Module and smart card.

This measure assures satellite television providers that only authorised, paying subscribers have access to Pay TV content but at the same time can allow free-to-air (FTA) channels to be viewed even by the people with standard equipment (DBS receivers without the Conditional Access Modules) available in the market.

Television receive-only

The term Television receive-only, or TVRO, arose during the early days of satellite television reception to differentiate it from commercial satellite television uplink and downlink operations (transmit and receive). This was before there was a DTH satellite television broadcast industry. Satellite television channels at that time were intended to be used by cable television networks rather than received by home viewers. Satellite TV receiver systems were largely constructed by hobbyists and engineers. These TVRO systems operated mainly on the C band frequencies and the dishes required were large; typically over 3 meters (10 ft) in diameter. Consequently TVRO is often referred to as "big dish" or "Big Ugly Dish" (BUD) satellite television.

TVRO systems are designed to receive analog and digital satellite feeds of both television or audio from both C-band and Ku-band transponders on FSS-type satellites. The higher frequency Ku-band systems tend to be Direct To Home systems and can use a smaller dish antenna because of the higher power transmissions and greater antenna gain.

TVRO systems tend to use larger rather than smaller satellite dish antennas, since it is more likely that the owner of a TVRO system would have a C-band-only setup rather than a Ku band-only setup. Additional receiver boxes allow for different types of digital satellite signal reception, such as DVB/MPEG-2 and 4DTV.

The narrow beam width of a normal parabolic satellite antenna means it can only receive signals from a single satellite at a time. Simulsat or the Vertex-RSI TORUS, is a quasi-parabolic satellite earthstation antenna that is capable of receiving satellite transmissions from 35 or more C- and Ku-band satellites simultaneously.

Direct to Home television

Today, most satellite TV customers in developed television markets get their programming through a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) provider, such as DISH TV or DTH platform. The provider selects programs and broadcasts them to subscribers as a set package. Basically, the provider goal is to bring dozens or even hundreds of channels to the customers television in a form that approximates the competition from Cable TV. Unlike earlier programming, the provider broadcast is completely digital, which means it has high picture and stereo sound quality. Early satellite television was broadcast in C-band - radio in the 3.4-gigahertz (GHz) to 7 GHz frequency range. Digital broadcast satellite transmits programming in the Ku frequency range (10 GHz to 14 GHz ). There are five major components involved in a direct to home (DTH) satellite system: the programming source, the broadcast center, the satellite, the satellite dish and the receiver.

Programming sources are simply the channels that provide programming for broadcast. The provider (the DTH platform) doesn create original programming itself; it pays other companies (HBO, for example, or ESPN or STAR TV or Sahara etc.) for the right to broadcast their content via satellite. In this way, the provider is a reseller of the programming sources. (Cable television networks also work on the same principle.) The broadcast center is the central hub of the system. At the broadcast center or the Playout & Uplink location, the television provider receives signals from various programming sources, compresses these signals using digital compression (scrambling if necessary), and beams a broadcast signal to the proper satellite. The satellite receive the signal from the broadcast station and rebroadcast them to the ground. The viewer dish picks up the signal from the satellite (or multiple satellites in the same part of the sky) and passes it on to the receiver in the viewer house. The receiver processes the signal and passes it on to a standard television. These are the steps in greater detail:

Programming

Satellite TV providers get programming from two major sources: International turnaround channels (such as HBO, ESPN and CNN, STAR TV, SET, B4U etc) and various local channels (SaBe TV, Sahara TV, Doordarshan, etc). Most of the turnaround channels also provide programming for cable television, so sometimes some of the DTH platforms will add in some special channels exclusive to itself to attract more subscriptions. Turnaround channels usually have a distribution center that beams their programming to a geostationary satellite. The broadcast center uses large satellite dishes to pick up these analog and digital signals from several sources.

Broadcasting centers

The broadcast center converts all of this programming into a high-quality, uncompressed digital stream. At this point, the stream contains a vast quantity of data about 270 megabits per second (Mbit/s) for each channel. In order to transmit the signal from there, the broadcast center has to compress it. Otherwise, it would be too big for the satellite to handle. The providers use the MPEG-2 compressed video format the same format used to store movies on DVDs. With MPEG-2 compression, the provider can reduce the 270-Mbit/s stream to about 3 or 10 Mbit/s (depending on the type of programming). This is the crucial step that has made DTH service a success. With digital compression, a typical satellite can transmit about 200 channels. Without digital compression, it can transmit about 30 channels. At the broadcast center, the high-quality digital stream of video goes through an MPEG-2 encoder, which converts the programming to MPEG-2 video of the correct size and format for the satellite receiver in your house.

Encryption and transmission

After the video is compressed, the provider needs to encrypt it in order to keep people from accessing it for free. Encryption scrambles the digital data in such a way that it can only be decrypted (converted back into usable data) if the receiver has the correct decoding satellite receiver with decryption algorithm and security keys. Once the signal is compressed and encrypted, the broadcast center beams it directly to one of its satellites. The satellite picks up the signal, amplifies it and beams it back to Earth, where viewers can pick it up.

The dish

A satellite dish is just a special kind of antenna designed to focus on a specific broadcast source. The standard dish consists of a parabolic (bowl-shaped) surface and a central feed horn. To transmit a signal, a controller sends it through the horn, and the dish focuses the signal into a relatively narrow beam. The dish on the receiving end can transmit information; it can only receive it. The receiving dish works in the exact opposite way of the transmitter. When a beam hits the curved dish, the parabola shape reflects the radio signal inward onto a particular point, just like a concave mirror focuses light onto a particular point. The curved dish focuses incoming radio waves onto the feed horn. In this case, the point is the dish feed horn, which passes the signal onto the receiving equipment. In an ideal setup, there aren any major obstacles between the satellite and the dish, so the dish receives a clear signal. In some systems, the dish needs to pick up signals from two or more satellites at the same time. The satellites may be close enough together that a regular dish with a single horn can pick up signals from both. This compromises quality somewhat, because the dish isn aimed directly at one or more of the satellites. A new dish design uses two or more horns to pick up different satellite signals. As the beams from different satellites hit the curved dish, they reflect at different angles so that one beam hits one of the horns and another beam hits a different horn. The central element in the feed horn is the low noise blockdown converter, or LNB. The LNB amplifies the signal bouncing off the dish and filters out the noise (signals not carrying programming). The LNB passes the amplified, filtered signal to the satellite receiver inside the viewer house.

The receiver

Further information: Set-top box

The end component in the entire satellite TV system is the receiver. The receiver has four essential jobs: It de-scrambles the encrypted signal. In order to unlock the signal, the receiver needs the proper decoder chip for that programming package. The provider can communicate with the chip, via the satellite signal, to make necessary adjustments to its decoding programs. The provider may occasionally send signals that disrupt illegal de-scramblers, as an electronic counter measure (ECM) against illegal users. It takes the digital MPEG-2 signal and converts it into an analog format that a standard television can recognize. Since the receiver spits out only one channel at a time, you can tape one program and watch another. You also can watch two different programs on two TVs hooked up to the same receiver. In order to do these things, which are standard on conventional cable, you need to buy an additional receiver. Some receivers have a number of other features as well. They pick up a programming schedule signal from the provider and present this information in an onscreen programming guide. Many receivers have parental lock-out options, and some have built-in Digital Video Recorders (DVRs), which let you pause live television or record it on a hard drive. While digital broadcast satellite service is still lacking some of the basic features of conventional cable (the ability to easily split signals between different TVs and VCRs, for example), varied programming selection and extended service areas are features now seen as an alternative.

Satellite television by region and country

Africa

South African-based Multichoice's DStv is the main digital satellite television provider in sub-Saharan Africa, broadcasting principally in English, but also in Portuguese, German and Afrikaans. Canal Horizons, owned by France's Canal+, is the main provider in French-speaking Africa. Another entrant into the satellite television circuit in Africa is MyTvAfrica, a subsidiary of Dubai based Strong Technologies. Satellite television has been far more successful in Africa than cable, primarily because the infrastructure for cable television does not exist and would be expensive to install since majority of Africans cannot afford paid cable television. Furthermore, maintaining a cable network is expensive due to the need to cover larger and more sparsely populated areas though there are some terrestrial pay-TV and MMDS services.

The launch of Free2view has made satellite TV available to the masses in Africa. Free2view currently broadcasts MSNBC as its exclusive news channel and is about to roll out additional channels.

GTV, a British-based company, has become the second in sub-saharan Africa providing digital satellite television with the focus first on Kenya Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Congo ETC.

Nigeria

Traditionally DStv had held a monopoly over Nigeria's Satellite television sector but three new companies, HiTVmytv and trend tv are starting to compete in this sector

Sudan

Sudan TV, the government-owned national network, is available by satellite as well as broadcast.

The Americas

United States

It has been suggested that this section be split into a new article titled Satellite television in the United States. (Discuss)

Currently, there are two primary satellite television providers of subscription based service available to United States consumers: Dish Network and DirecTV.

Over the past three decades, various U.S. satellite services have come and gone or combined to form the current primary services. In 1975 RCA created Satcom 1, the first satellite built especially for use by the then three national television networks (CBS, NBC, and ABC). Later that same year, HBO leased a transponder on Satcom 1 and began transmission of television programs via satellite to cable systems. Owners of cable systems paid $10,000 to install 3-meter dishes to receive TV signals in C-band. In 1976 Taylor Howard built an amateur system, which consisted of a converted military surplus radar dish and a satellite receiver designed and built by Howard, for home satellite reception. Taylor's system could be used for receiving TV programs both from American and Soviet communication satellites. In 1977 Pat Robertson launched the first satellite-delivered basic cable service called the CBN Cable Network. In 1979, the Satellite Home Viewers Act allowed homeowners in the US to own and operate their own home satellite system, consisting of C-band equipment from a multitude of manufacturers who were making parts for systems such as Taylor Howard's, and began a large controversy of which channels could be received by whom.

USSB was a direct-to-home service founded in 1981. In the early 1990s they partnered with Hughes and continued operation until purchased in 1998 by DirecTV.

In 1991 Primestar launched as the first North American DBS service. Hughes DirecTV, the first national high-powered upper Ku-band DBS system, went online in 1994. The DirecTV system became the new delivery vehicle for USSB. In 1996, EchoStar Dish Network went online in the United States and has gone on to similar success as DirecTV primary competitor. The AlphaStar service launched in 1996 and went into bankruptcy in 1997. Dominion Video Satellite Inc's Sky Angel also went online in the United States in 1996 with its DBS service geared towards "faith and family". Primestar sold its assets to Hughes in 1999 and switched from DBS to an IPTV platform.

In 2004, Cablevision Voom service went online, specifically catering to the emerging market of HDTV owners and aficionados, but folded in April 2005. The service xclusive high-definition channels were migrated to the Dish Network system. Commercial DBS services are the primary competition to cable television service, although the two types of service have significantly different regulatory requirements (for example, cable television has public access requirements, and the two types of distribution have different regulations regarding carriage of local stations).

90cm multiple-LNA toroidal satellite dish

The majority of ethnic-language broadcasts in North America are carried on Ku band free-to-air. The largest concentration of ethnic programming is on Galaxy 19 at 97 W. Pittsburgh International Telecommunications and GlobeCast World TV offers a mix of free and pay-TV ethnic channels in the internationally-standard DVB-S format, as do others. Home2US Communications Inc. also offers several ethnic channels on AMC-4 at 101 W, as well as other free and pay-TV channels. Several U.S.-English language network affiliates (representing CBS, NBC, ABC, PBS, FOX, the CW (formerly the WB and UPN), ION Network and MyNetworkTV) are available as free-to-air broadcasts, as are the three U.S.-Spanish language networks (Univisin, Telefutura and Telemundo). The number of free-to-air specialty channels is otherwise rather limited. Specific FTA offerings tend to appear and disappear rather often and typically with little or no notice, although sites such as LyngSat do track the changing availability of both free and pay channels worldwide.

On October 7, 2009, NAB TV Board chair Paul Karpowicz planned to testify before the Senate Communications Subcommittee that broadcasters would be willing to allow subscribers of distant signals to continue to do so even if the digital transition resulted in those subscribers receiving stations that they could not before. The NAB did oppose offering new distant signals if a digital signal was available. The Satellite TV Modernization Act had to be passed by the end of 2009. The House bill also allowed Dish Network to offer distant signals. On November 5, Senate Judiciary Committee chairman Patrick Leahy said he hoped for a "short-time agreement" on the bill passed out of committee September 24. If the Senate approves, the House will have to approve the bill, and if the two versions cannot be reconciled, the license to import signals that expires at the end of the year could be extended. The House version included an agreement with Echostar that, where possible, all 210 markets could receive signals, and Echostar could once again deliver distant signals.

The Senate Commerce Committee approved a version of the bill on November 19, without an amendment requiring local signals in all markets in three years, though a study would be conducted on why 30 markets still had a problem. Before Senate approval, the two versions of the bill will have to be reconciled; the Judiciary Committee had a short market fix, while the Commerce committee bill required PBS in HD sooner.

The House approved the Satellite Home Viewer Reauthorization Act December 3. It included both the House Commerce Committee and House Judiciary Committee versions and renewed the ability to use distant signals for five years, allowed Dish Network to offer distant signals again, and required 28 markets to receive signals not available locally. The bill also dealt with some copyright issues and required Dish Network to offer HD noncommercial signals by 2011 instead of 2013.

One potential problem: determining who cannot receive a signal is still based on analog rather than digital TV.

On February 11, 2010, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid said the satellite reauthorization was part of a jobs bill. Rick Boucher, House chairman for communications and the Internet, believed the bill would pass. The deadline is March, since it has been extended 60 days.

Canada

Currently, there are two primary satellite television providers of subscription based service available to Canadians consumers: Bell TV and Shaw Direct.The CRTC has refused to license American satellite services, but nonetheless hundreds of thousands (up to a million by some estimates) of Canadians access or have accessed American services usually these services have to be billed to an American address and are paid for in U.S. dollars, although some viewers receive American signals through pirate decryption. Whether such activity is grey market or black market is the source of often heated debate between those who would like greater choice and those who argue that the protection of Canadian firms and Canadian culture is more important. In October 2004, Quebec judge Danile Ct ruled Canada's Radiocommunication Act to be in direct violation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, insofar as it bans reception of unlicensed foreign television services. The judgment gave the federal government a one-year deadline to remedy this breach of the Constitution. However, this contradicts prior Supreme Court of Canada decisions and, at last word in late 2004, was expected to be appealed.[citation needed] In addition, Canadian satellite providers continue to be plagued by the unquestionably black market devices which "pirate" or "steal" their signals as well as by a number of otherwise completely lawful devices which can be reprogrammed to receive pirate TV. Although there are no official statistics, the use of American satellite services in Canada appears to be declining as of 2004 Some would claim that this is probably due to a combination of increasingly aggressive police enforcement and an unfavourable exchange rate between the Canadian and U.S. currencies. As the U.S. dollar has been declining as of 2005 versus other international currencies, the decline in DirecTV viewership in Canada may well be related not to a cost difference as much as to the series of smart card swaps which have rendered the first three generations of DirecTV access cards (F, H and HU) all obsolete.

Latin America

Latin America main satellite system are SKY Latin America, which has approximately 1.4 million subscribers in each of Brazil and Mexico and DirecTV Latin America, which provides service to the rest of the Americas, with a total of approximately 1.3 million subscribers. Pay-TV is not popular among Latin Americans because fees are expensive in PPP terms.

The service offered in Brazil includes Digital TV with full Dolby Digital surround support, mts and multiple subtitle options, a first for the Brazilian market. A recent update to Sky's services in Brazil is Sky+ which allows the customer to record a program while watching another one and also Sky HD which currently provides up to 29 high definition channels. Services are however relatively expensive, therefore market penetration is still limited.

Asia

Bangladesh

There are several satellite providers in Bangladesh. The main ones are listed below: - - # Bangla Vision - # NTV - # RTV - # ATN Bangla - # Channel I - # Channel 1 - # KASTURI - # DD - # Boishaki TV - # ETV - # DESH TV - # Diganta Television - # Islamic TV - # STVUS -

Kazakhstan

The first salellite TV channel in Kazakstan, CaspioNet, was launched by the Khabar news agency in 2002.

Malaysia

Astro's "mini-dish".

Malaysia's sole satellite television operator, Measat Broadcast Network Systems (a subsidiary of Astro All Asia Networks plc) launched Astro in 1996. It currently holds exclusive rights from the Malaysian government to offer satellite television broadcasting services in the country through the year 2017.

Japan

The medium-scale Broadcasting Satellite for Experimental Purposes (BSE) was planned by Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications (MOPT) and developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) since 1974. After that, the first Japanese experimental broadcasting satellite, called BSE or Yuri, was launched in 1978. NHK started experimental broadcasting of TV program using BS-2a satellite on May, 1984. The satellite BS-2a was launched in preparation for the start of full scale 2-channel broadcasts. Broadcasting Satellite BS-2a was the first national DBS (direct broadcasting satellite), transmitting signals directly into the home of TV viewers. Attitude control of the satellite was conducted using the 3 axial method (zero momentum), and design life was 5 years. The TV transponder units are designed to sufficiently amplify transmitted signals to enable reception by small, 40 or 60 cm home-use parabolic antennas. The satellite was equipped with 3 TV transponders (including reserve units). However, one transponder malfunctioned 2 months after launch (March 23, 1984) and a second transponder malfunctioned 3 months after launch (May 3, 1984). So, the scheduled satellite broadcasting had to be hastily adjusted to test broadcasting on a single channel. Later, NHK started regular service (NTSC) and experimental HDTV broadcasting using BS-2b on June, 1989. Some Japanese producers of home electronic consumer devices began to deliver TVsets, VCRs and even home acoustic systems equipped by built-in satellite tuners or receivers. Such electronic goods had a specific BS logo. On April, 1991, Japanese company JSB started pay TV service while BS-3 communication satellite was in use. In 1996 total number of households that receive satellite broadcasting exceeded 10 million. The modern two satellite systems in use in Japan are BSAT and JCSAT; the modern WOWOW Broadcasting Satellite digital service uses BSAT satellites, while other system of digital TV broadcasting SKY PerfecTV! uses JCSAT satellites.

Pakistan

In the recent years, there has been a lot of investment in television industry in Pakistan. There are more than 90 Satellite channels operating directly inside Pakistan and about 40 operating their broadcasting from Dubai, Thailand, Bangkok and UK.[citation needed]

Philippines

Dream Satellite TV is pay DTH service of Philippine Multimedia Service Inc. (PMSI)

Cignal Digital TV is pay DTH service of Mediascape Inc.

G Sat is pay DTH service of FUBC.

Thailand

See also: TrueVisions

and Media in Thailand

TrueVisions is the leading pay TV service of Thailand which operate cable TV in Bangkok and satellite TV across the country. TrueVisions is owned by True Corporation. VIet Nam sat is just launched in 4/2008 and GMM Grammy is the second pay TV service of Thailand

Australasia

Australia

Satellite television in Australia has proven to be a far more feasible option than cable television, due to the vast distances between population centres. The first service to come online in Australia was Galaxy, which was later taken over by Cable Television giant Foxtel, which now operates both cable and satellite services to all state capital cities (except Darwin and Hobart) and the whole of Western Australia. Its main metropolitan rival was Optus Vision, while rural areas are served by Austar, both of which just rebroadcast Foxtel as of 2005. In 2006 SelecTV began operating, aiming at providing comparatively low cost packages and catering to specialised market segments.

New Zealand

In New Zealand, SKY Network Television offers multichannel digital satellite TV, in addition to its non-digital terrestrial UHF service. The newly released Freeview service is also available on the Optus D1 satellite, as well as a High Definition digital terrestrial service.

Europe

Continental Western Europe

In Europe, DBS satellite services are found mainly on Astra satellites and Hotbird (operated by Eutelsat.) BSkyB (known as Sky) serves the UK. SKY Italia, Canal Digitaal and UPC being the main providers in Italy, the Netherlands and Central Europe.

The overall market share of DBS satellite services in 2004 was 21.4% of all TV homes, however this highly varies from country to country. For example, in Germany, with many free-to-air TV-stations, DBS market share is almost 40%, and in Belgium and the Netherlands, it only about 7%, due to the widespread cable networks with exclusive content.

Russian Federation

The first Soviet communication satellite, called Molniya (, or "Lightning"), was launched in 1965. By November, 1967 the national system of satellite television, called Orbita was deployed. The system consisted of 3 highly elliptical Molniya satellites, Moscow-based ground uplink facilities and about 20 downlink stations, located in cities and towns of remote regions of Siberia and Far East. Each station had a 12-meter receiving parabolic antenna and transmitters for re-broadcasting TV signal to local householders.

However, a large part of Soviet central regions were still not covered by transponders of Molniya satellites. By 1976 Soviet engineers developed a relatively simple and inexpensive system of satellite television (especially for Central and Northern Siberia). It included geostationary satellites called Ekran equipped with powerful 300 W UHF transponders, a broadcasting uplink station and various simple receiving stations located in various towns and villages of Siberian region. The typical receiving station, also called Ekran, represented itself as a home-use analog satellite receiver equipped with simple Yagi-Uda antenna. Later, Ekran satellites were replaced by more advanced Ekran-M series satellites.

In 1979 Soviet engineers developed Moskva (or Moscow) system of broadcasting and delivering of TV signal via satellites. New type of geostationary communication satellites, called Gorizont, were launched. They were equipped by powerful onboard transponders, so the size of receiving parabolic antennas of downlink stations was reduced to 4 and 2.5 meters (in comparison of early 12- meter dishes of standard orbital downlink stations).

By 1989 an improved version of Moskva system of satellite television has been called Moskva Global'naya (or Moscow Global). The system included a few geostationary Gorizont and Express type of communication satellites. TV signal from Moscow Global satellites could be received in any country of planet except Canada and North-West of the USA.

Modern Russian satellite broadcasting services based on powerful geostationary buses such as Gals, Express, Yamal and Eutelsat which provide a large quantity of free-to-air television channels to millions of householders. Pay-TV is growing in popularity amongst Russian TV viewers. The NTV Russia news company, owned by Gazprom, broadcasts the NTV Plus package to 560,000 households, reaching over 1.5 million viewers. -

United Kingdom and Ireland

Sky Digital "mini-dish"

The first commercial DBS service in the United Kingdom, Sky Television, was launched in 1989 and used the newly launched ASTRA satellite, providing 4 analogue TV channels. The channels and subsequent VideoCrypt video encryption system used the existing PAL broadcast standard. This gave Sky a distinct advantage over the winner of the UK state DBS licence, BSB.

In the following year, after many delays, BSB was launched, broadcasting five channels (Now, Galaxy, The Movie Channel, The Power Station and The Sports Channel) in D-MAC format and using the EuroCypher video encryption system which was based heavily on the General Instruments VideoCipher system used in the USA. While the BSB system was technologically more advanced than the PAL system and one of the main selling points of the BSB offering was the Squarial, an expensive flat plate antenna and LNB. Sky's system used conventional and cheap dish and LNB technology.

The competition between the two companies was fierce and bidding wars over the UK rights to movies. Sky kept costs to a bare minimum, operating from an industrial park in Isleworth in West London. BSB had expensive offices in London (Marco Polo House). The two services subsequently merged to form British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB) though the new BSkyB was really Sky. The technologically more advanced BSB D-MAC/EuroCypher system was gradually replaced with Sky's VideoCrypt video encryption system.

In 1994 17% of the group was floated on the London Stock Exchange (with ADRs listed on the New York Stock Exchange), and Rupert Murdoch News Corporation owns a 35% stake.

By 1999, following the launch of several more satellites (at 19.2E by SES Astra, the number of channels had increased to around 60 and BSkyB launched the first subscription-based digital television platform in the UK, offering a range of 300 channels broadcast from the ASTRA satellites at 28.2E under the brand name Sky Digital. BSkyB analogue service was discontinued on 31st December 2001 and all customers have migrated to Sky Digital.

In May 2008, a free-to-air satellite service from the BBC and ITV was launched under the brand name Freesat, carrying a variety of channels, including some content in HD formats.

Nordic countries

The first satellite service specifically set to the Nordic region was TV3 which launched in 1987. With the launch of Astra 1A, getting the TV3 channel got easier. The first Nordic-specific satellite, Tele-X, was launched in 1989. The services directed at Scandinavia were then scattered among several satellites. In 1993, the former BSB satellites were bought by a Swedish and a Norwegian company, respectively. These two satellites were renamed Thor 1 and Sirius 1, moved to new positions and started broadcasting services intended for people in the Nordic region. With the launch of additional Thor and Sirius satellites later in the 1990s, Astra and other satellites were abandoned by the Nordic services with almost all Nordic satellite television migrating to the Sirius and Thor satellites.

Initially the basic channels were free-to-air. This caused several rights problems since viewers throughout Europe were able to see very much acquired English language programming as well as sports for free on the Nordic channels, although the channels only held broadcasting rights for specific countries. One way of avoiding that was to switch from PAL to the D2-MAC standard, hardly used anywhere outside the Nordic region. An unencrypted channel could still be seen in all the Nordic satellite homes, so eventually all channels went encrypted (several of them only being available in one country). There are two competing satellite services: Canal Digital (Norwegian Telenor) and Viasat (Kinnevik). Canal Digital launched in 1997 and was digital from the start, broadcasting from Thor. Kinnevik had been operating an analogue subscription service since the late 1980s, but waited until the year 2000 before launching a digital service. All analogue services from Thor and Sirius will have ceased in 2006, when the three remaining Danish channels go digital-only. The competition between Viasat and Canal Digital has caused some homes in Scandinavia to have to buy two set-top boxes and have two subscriptions to get the full range of channels. Viasat doesn't provide their own channels (TV3, TV3+, ZTV, TV1000 and the Viasat-branded channels) on the Canal Digital platform. Canal Digital does however have exclusive distribution of channels from SBS Broadcasting, Discovery, TV2 Denmark and Eurosport; for several years the Swedish SVT and TV4 channels were also exclusive to Canal Digital.

Middle East & North Africa

The Middle East has a high penetration of homes receiving TV channels via DTH satellite. One of the pioneers of free-to-air digital satellite television is considered to be MBC, which began broadcasting in c band through Arabsat and is the first network in the world to offer a free-to-air Western based English language movie channel to the Middle East audience via its spinoff channel MBC 2. Its direct rival is considered to be Dubai, UAE based One TV, earlier called Channel 33, which was the first channel in the Middle East to provide English language general entertainment programming for the expatriate community.

Nourmina Channel is the first satellite channel owned by a Jordanian national of the private sector, which broadcasts on Nile Sat reluctantly 12303H, which covers all the Arab countries, Africa and most parts of Europe - The first digital DTH pay-TV network to provide indian Entertainment was Orbit Satellite Television and Radio Network broadcasting via Eurobird 2 (Ku band), later on Showtime Arabia a joint venture between Viacom (21% stake) and KIPCO (79% stake) started broadcasting, via PanAmSat (C band), but later switched over to Nilesat (KU band). Arab Radio and Television Network(ART) now known as Arab Digital Distribution although a late comer, gained ground by broadcasting exclusive sports events. Most of the popular channels are transmitting from these satellites and orbital positions: Arabsat at 26E, AsiaSat at 100.5E and 105.5E, Eutelsat Hot Bird at 13E, Nilesat at 7W, and PanAmSat at 68.5E. + Currently, there are two primary satellite television providers of subscription based service available to Canadians consumers: Bell TV and Shaw Direct.

In Israel, Satellite TV services were introduced by YES! company, using Israeli based Amos (satellite).

See also

Satellite dish

Microwave antenna

Commercialization of space

FTA Receiver

Molniya orbit

References

^ Robertson, Lloyd (1972-11-09). "Anik A1 launching: bridging the gap". CBC English TV. http://archives.cbc.ca/500f.asp?id=1-75-92-594. Retrieved 2007-01-25. 

^ BBC News: Country profile: Sudan. Page last updated at 13:38 GMT, Wednesday, 18 June 2008 14:38 UK. Accessed July 13, 2008.

^ LyngSat tracking

^ Eggerton, John (2009-10-06). "NAB Won't Oppose Some Grandfathering Of Distant Signals". Broadcasting & Cable. http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/356999-NAB_Won_t_Oppose_Some_Grandfathering_Of_Distant_Signals.php?rssid=20068&q=digital+tv. Retrieved 2009-10-09. 

^ Eggerton, John (2009-11-05). "Leahy Looks for 'Short-Time' Agreement on Satellite Reauthorization". Broadcasting & Cable. http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/382942-Leahy_Looks_for_Short_Time_Agreement_on_Satellite_Reauthorization.php?rssid=20068&q=digital+tv. Retrieved 2009-11-10. 

^ Eggerton, John (2009-11-19). "Senate Passes Satellite Reauthorization Bill". Broadcasting & Cable. http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/389824-Senate_Passes_Satellite_Reauthorization_Bill.php?rssid=20068&q=digital+tv. Retrieved 2009-11-20. 

^ Eggerton, John (2009-12-03). "SHVRA Passes Convincingly in House". Broadcasting & Cable. http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/417629-SHVRA_Passes_Convincingly_in_House.php?rssid=20065&q=digital+tv. Retrieved 2009-12-03. 

^ Eggerton, John (2009-12-15). "Satellite Bill Extension Said To Be On Table In House". Broadcasting & Cable. http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/440498-Satellite_Bill_Extension_Said_To_Be_On_Table_In_House.php?rssid=20103&q=digital+tv. Retrieved 2009-12-17. 

^ Eggerton, John (2010-02-11). "Senate Version of Satellite Bill Hits Hill". Broadcasting & Cable. http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/448896-Senate_Version_of_Satellite_Bill_Hits_Hill.php?rssid=20068&q=digital+tv. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 

^ "CTV.ca | Lawsuit targets grey market satellite dealers". Ctv.ca. Updated Mon. Oct. 21 2002 8:46 PM ET. http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/1035231116797_30640316//. Retrieved 2008-09-06. 

^ "Broadband TV News | Central and East Europe | Home". Broadbandtvnews.com. http://www.broadbandtvnews.com/archive_cen/240306.html. Retrieved 2008-09-06. 

External links

Lyngemark Satellite Charts

Worldwide satellite locations and feed information, available in a wide variety of languages

Upcoming Satellites

Satellite XML Generator

SES Astra interactive fleet map

SES Astra channel guide

Satellite-TV/TVRO/ C-Band FAQ List

Linowsat PID-Lists and Videobitrate Charts

Satellite and Digital Broadcasting

Steve Birkill's History of C-Band and Early Satellite TV

Mark Long's Russian Statsionar Satellite Systems

Online Satellite Calculations

Online Satellite Finder Based on Google Maps

v  d  e

Cable, satellite and other specialty television providers

Cable

television

Asianet Cable Vision  Adams Cable  Adelphia  Airtel Digital Tv  Armstrong Telephone Company  Atlantic Broadband  Austar  Bright House Networks  Buckeye CableSystem  Cablelink  CableOne  Cable TV Hong Kong  Cable TV Wakasa Obama (Japan)  Cablevision (U.S.)  Cablevision (Canada)  Canal Digital  Champion Broadband  Charter  Cogeco  Columbus Communications  Comcast  Com Hem  Cox  DartyBox  EastLink  EMBARQ  ER-Telecom (Russia)  Fastweb (Italy)  First Media  Foxtel  GCI  Global Destiny  Globosat  GUdTV (Guam)  Hathway  Hot  IndosatM2  Insight  Kabel Deutschland  Knology  Kujtesa  MASTV  MC Cable  MCV Broadband  Mediacom  MetroCast Cablevision   Midcontinent Communications  Millennium Digital Media  Neighbourhood Cable  Net Brasil  Ono  Optus  Persona  Qwest Choice TV  RCS&RDS  RCN  Rogers  Satview Broadband Ltd  Service Electric  SkyCable  Shaw  Smallworld  StarHub TV  Suddenlink  TDC  Tele2  Tele Columbus (Germany)  Telenet (Belgium)  TelkomVision  TelstraClear InHomeTV  Time Warner  TransACT  TrueVisions  Turksat Kablo  TV Cabo  TVTEL  UCS  UPC Ireland  UPC Netherlands  UPC Romania  Uralsvyazinform (Russia)  Vidotron  Virgin Media  WOW!  WightCable  Ziggo 

Satellite

television

AB Sat  Airtel Digital Tv  AlphaStar  Arab Digital Distribution  ART  Astro  Astro Nusantara  Austar  Bell TV  BIG TV  Boom TV  CanalDigitaal  Canal Digital  CanalSat  CanalSat Caldonie  CanalSat Carabes  CanalSat Horizon  CanalSat Reunion  CaspioNet  Cyfra+  D-smart  DD Direct Plus  DialogTV  Digi TV  Digit-Alb  Digital+  Digiturk  DirecTV  Dish Network  Dish TV  Dolce  Dream  DStv  Euro1080  Focus Sat  Foxtel  freesat  Freesat from Sky  Freeview (NZ)  GlobeCast World TV  Globosat  Glorystar  HiTV  Home2US  Indovision  Kristal-Astro  Max TV  MBC (Middle East)   N (Poland)  NOVA Cyprus  NOVA Greece  NTV Plus  Sky Deutschland  Orbit Showtime Network  PrimeStar  SelecTV  Shaw Direct  Sky Digital  SKY Italia  Sky Latin America   SkyLife  Sky PerfecTV!  SKY TV (NZ)  STAR Select  STAR TV  Sun TV  Tata Sky  Tiv Sat  TPS  TelkomVision  TrueVisions  TV Cabo  TV Vlaanderen Digitaal  TVTEL  UBI World TV  USSB  Viasat  Viasat Ukraine  Voom  WOWOW  Yes

IPTV

Alice Home TV (Italy)  Beeline (Russia)  Belgacom  BSNL  Bell Aliant TV  BT Vision  Canal Digital  Clix  Crnogorski Telekom  DartyBox  Deutsche Telekom (T-Home)  Elioni DTV (Estonia)  Fastweb (Italy)  Fine TV  Free  Freewire TV   hanaTV (Korea)  Imagenio  iNES  Infostrada TV (Italy)  KPN  La Tl des P&T (Luxembourg)  Maroc Telecom TV (Morocco)  mio TV  MTNL  Neuf  now TV  Orange  Portugal Telecom (Meo)  Sky Angel  ShqipTV  T-com Hrvatska  T-Home Macedonia  TalkTalk TV  Tele2  Telefnica  TeliaSonera  Telus TV  Tiscali TV (Italy)  TPG IPTV  TrueIPTV (Thailand)  TVCatchup  U-verse  VDC  Viasat

Terrestrial

television

Boxer (Sweden)  Cablevision (Lebanon)  Doordarshan  Freeview (Australia)  Freeview (NZ)  Freeview (UK)  KPN (Netherlands)  La 7 Cartapi (Italy)  Mediaset Premium (Italy)  MiTV  Multi-Choice TV (Barbados)  Pakistan Television Corporation  PlusTV (Finland)  RiksTV (Norway)  Sky Picnic  Tlvision Numrique Terrestre (France)  Top Up TV  Televiso Digital Terrestre (Portugal)

Fiber-Optic

TVTEL   Verizon FiOS  at&t  meo fibra

v  d  e

Wireless video and data distribution methods

Advanced Wireless Services  Amateur television  Analog television  Digital radio  Digital television  Digital television in Europe  Digital terrestrial television (DTT or DTTV) 

Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): Terrestrial - Satellite - Handheld  Multipoint Video Distribution System (MVDS or DVB-MS)  HomeRF  Instructional Television Fixed Service (ITFS) now known as Educational Broadband Service (EBS)  Ku band  Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS)  Microwave  Mobile broadband  Mobile TV  Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e)  Mobile broadband wireless access (IEEE 802.20)  Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS) now known as Business Radio Service (BRS)  MVDS  MVDDS  Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (3G MMMS)  Satellite Internet access  Satellite radio  Satellite television  UWB (IEEE 802.15.3)  Visual sensor network  Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11)  WiMAX (IEEE 802.20)  WRAN (IEEE 802.22)  Wireless local loop (WLL)  Wireless broadband  Wireless USB  3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) 

4G

v  d  e

Satellite communication

Main articles

Satellite television  Satellite radio  Relay satellite  Transponder  Satellite Internet access  List of communications satellite firsts  List of communication satellite companies  Earth station  more...

Hardware

Satellite dish  Satellite modem  Very small aperture terminal  Satellite phone

Satellite radio/TV

DVB-SH  S-DMB  DVB-RCS  DVB-S2  Digital Audio Radio Service  more sat radio...  more sat tv...

Broadcast radio/tv companies

Astra Digital Radio  1worldspace  Sirius Satellite Radio  Sirius XM Radio  XM Satellite Radio  Dish Network  DirecTV  AfriStar  Sky Television plc

Relay satellite companies

Inmarsat  SES Astra  Eutelsat  Thales Alenia Space  EADS Astrium  Arianespace  Boeing  Lockheed Martin  SED Systems  Tooway  Viasat  Globalstar

Trade organizations

ETSI Satellite Digital Radio  Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems

See also: Category:Communications satellites

Categories: Satellite television | Broadcasting | Satellite ground stationsHidden categories: Articles with weasel words from March 2009 | Articles with unsourced statements from December 2009 | All articles with unsourced statements | Article sections to be split from April 2009 | Articles to be split from April 2009 | All articles to be split | Articles with unsourced statements from February 2007 | Articles with unsourced statements from April 2008




Source by dudu

Exciting Shore Excursions Allow Guests To Experience Caribbean Adventures With Msc Cruises

FORT LAUDERDALE, FLA. (August 25, 2009) – For many, the Caribbean evokes visions of sunbathing, shopping and sightseeing. Travelers seeking that plus a more experiential Caribbean cruise need look no further than MSC Cruises for an unforgettable vacation with exciting shore excursions.

MSC Cruises offers guests the opportunity for some exciting – even adventurous – experiences on its 2009-10 Caribbean itineraries. Several shore excursion options enable guests to explore the Caribbean over land (by train, bicycle, 4X4, ATV, bus or horseback), above and beneath the sea (snorkeling, SCUBA diving, in a glass-bottomed boat, and on a catamaran or kayak) and through the air (attached to a cable between 100-foot-high trees). There is also the chance for unique ecological experiences and, of course, plenty of fun and sun.

There’s limited space available for shore excursions, so advance reservations prior to sailing are recommended.

MSC Poesia’s 7-night Western Caribbean roundtrip sailings from Fort Lauderdale (January 16, February 6, 13 and 27, March 13 and 27, and April 10) call at Key West, Florida; Playa del Carmen, Mexico; Georgetown, Grand Cayman; Montego Bay, Jamaica, and Nassau, Bahamas.  Among the many shore excursion options available are:

Playa del Carmen
•    Snorkel the Mayan Riviera and explore underwater caverns
•    Glide over marine life in a clear-bottom kayak
•    Swim with the dolphins
•    Go horseback riding

Grand Cayman
•    Feed, interact and play with Southern Stingrays at Stingray City
•    Certified divers can explore reefs and wrecks Introductory SCUBA lesson – after training in a swimming pool, participants go on a shallow reef dive
•    Board a Reef Roamer glass bottom boat for a glimpse of the shipwrecks

Montego Bay
•    Go white water rafting on Martha Brae
•    Take a river tubing safari in the White River Valley
•    4X4 Jeep safari through Fern Gully, Murphy Hill and Dunn’s River Falls
•    Explore Ocho Rios and Dunn’s River Falls

Nassau•    Drive to Fort Fincastle for a panoramic view of the island
•    Ride in a boat for a narrated cruise through the harbor and then enjoy a narrated walking tour of Atlantis Resort
•    Sail in a catamaran
•    Snorkel the Athol Island Park

Cruise-only rates begin at $549 per person, double occupancy. Shore excursions are additional.

Cruise the Eastern Caribbean on MSC Poesia for 7 nights from Fort Lauderdale (January 9, 23 and 30, February 20 and March 6). Calling at San Juan, Puerto Rico; Philipsburg, St. Maarten; Tortola, British Virgin Islands; and Nassau, Bahamas), shore excursions include the following:

•    Explore the El Yunque Rainforest by foot while surrounded by exotic plants and waterfalls
•    Visit the Bacardi Rum Distillery and tour Old San Juan
•    Experience the passion and fire of Spanish music with Juan Carlos in a traditional performance
•    View the bioluminescent organisms that make the fish and kayak glow when you immerse your hands in the water during a kayak adventure
•    Swing from tree-to-tree and platform-to-platform on a series of pulleys and cables for a canopy adventure 10-70 feet above the tropical rainforest

Cruise-only rates begin at $549 per person, double occupancy. Shore excursions are additional.

10-Night Caribbean Experiences

MSC Poesia’s  10-night Deep Caribbean cruises (departing Fort Lauderdale November 20 and 30 and calling at Willemstad, Curacao; Oranjestad, Aruba; Cartagena, Colombia; Cristobal, Panama; Playa del Carmen, Mexico; San Juan, Puerto Rico; Basseterre, St. Kitts; Bridgetown, Barbados; Fort de France, Martinique; Philipsburg, St. Maarten; and Nassau, Bahamas) offer a variety of  shore excursion experiences as well. While in Antigua, for example, guests can go horseback riding on the beach, take a catamaran to the northwest coast of the island for some snorkeling, or go bottom fishing.

Cruise-only rates begin at $799 per person, double occupancy. Shore excursions are additional.

The ship’s Caribbean featuring Panama 10-night sailing (departing Fort Lauderdale on December 10) calls at Georgetown, Grand Cayman; Cartagena, Colombia; Cristobal, Panama; Puerto Limon, Costa Rica, and Playa del Carmen, Mexico.

Among the many shore excursions available on this itinerary are a Mangroves Ecological Tour via canoe in Cartagena. In Cristobal, guests can opt to explore the Portobelo and Gatun Locks to admire the Panama Canal, kayak the Gatun Lake, and encounter monkey watch at Gamboa.

Cruise-only rates begin at $749 per person, double occupancy. Shore excursions are additional.

Whether you are interested in adventure, exploration, history, shopping, architecture, relaxation or just some plain old fun in the sun, MSC Cruises’ Caribbean itineraries offer something for everyone.

With the line’s “Kids Sail Free” offer (ages 17 and under sail free when sharing a stateroom with two full-fare-paying adults), the entire family can enjoy a memorable Caribbean getaway.All prices quoted are cruise-only; government fees and taxes are additional for all guests. Some restrictions may apply on shore excursions. For more information, visit www.MSCCruisesUSA or contact a local travel professional.

Check out our website for a wide array of theme cruises at www.MSCCruisesUSA.com. Become a fan on Facebook. Follow us on Twitter. Watch us on You Tube. For more information about MSC Cruises, visit www.MSCCruisesUSA.com or a local travel professional.

###

About MSC Cruises:

MSC Cruises has the most modern fleet in the world with ten ships: MSC Splendida and MSC Fantasia (the largest ships built for a European ship owner), MSC Poesia, MSC Orchestra, MSC Musica, MSC Sinfonia, MSC Armonia, MSC Opera, MSC Lirica and MSC Melody. The fleet cruises year round in the Mediterranean and seasonally in Northern Europe, the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean, North America and Canada, South America, the Indian Ocean, South and West Africa. MSC Magnifica launches in 2010. MSC Cruises recently forged a three-year, million-dollar partnership with UNICEF to fund a community project in Brazil while increasing awareness of this cause onboard its ships.




Source by Bill Ospring

2009 San Antonio Riverwalk Weddings * Military Wedding Information

Wow! It is spring and the wedding bells ring! The Marriage Island located in the San Antonio River on the Riverwalk is located just down the Riverwalk from the Westin Riverwalk Hotel. The Island has been used for Religious Services for over 300 years. The first Catholic Mass held in San Antonio was held on the Island. The island has also been used by most other denominations at one time. This includes Baptists, Presbyterians, Lutherans, & Methodist over the past 250 years as a meeting place to hear the gospel. The Marriage Island is one of the most beautiful wedding spots in the State of Texas. Several photos are shown on the website of past Riverwalk Weddings.

Weddings may be officiated at any San Antonio location. Outdoor and backyard wedding make for a real cozy setting. We have served people from all areas of San Antonio, New Braunfels, Gruene, and Universal City. Churches available for rent if you require a Church Wedding.

Military Weddings for members of all Bracnches of the United States Military. We have officiated weddings at the Fort Sam Houston Chapel, and the Lackland Air Force Base Chapel. Father Louis Bernhardt is a Member of the United States Chaplain's Service, and serves as State Commander. Father Louis also serves as a Member of the Board of Govenors for the Texas Association of Wedding Officiates for 2009.

There are many options for your Riverwalk Wedding. You may charter a Riverboat for the Wedding Meal. Live Musicians available to play your favorite songs. You may have a friend or family member read a poem! You may write your own vows that you speak to each other during the celebration.

Children from previous marriages may be included in the ceremony. The Minister would present each child a ring or other memento that the couple furnishes. This officially makes the child a part of the celebration and a member of the new family.

Rules for Military Weddings at Militarty Chapels & West Point.

Every wedding requires special planning, but a military wedding calls for some specific traditions that may be unfamiliar to a civilian bride whose mother or mother-in-law did not have to consider such a ceremony.

Marilyn Sharp, wife of Colonel Dan Sharp (retired), gives this advice on how to smooth the way to a perfect military wedding. "The most important thing to do is to plan as soon as you becone engaged, and don't feel silly checking two or three times with the caterer or florist." Mrs. Sharp said that it was not uncommon to have the wrong flowers and wedding cake end up at the wrong wedding. Part of the problem with simple services, like hotels, caterers, and florists at the academies, is that there are so few of them. West Point, for example, has only one hotel in the nearby town. Many people come each year to West Point for graduation and weddings in June, so hotel reservations must be made as early as February.

Mrs. Sharp's husband graduated from West Point in 1951 and retired from the service as the deputy commandant at West Point. Being the wife of the deputy commandant, she helped the cadets plan their weddings and recalls having attended eight military weddings in one day! Any enlisted man or officer can have a military wedding in full-dress uniform. Like anything having to do with the military, there are certain guidelines that pertain to all military weddings, regardless of wether they are held at one of the academy chapels or in a civilian church.

A military wedding is a formal affair. Your fiance and his military friends wear their dress uniforms and white gloves. Boutonnieres cannot be worn on a military uniform. If there are any civilian ushers, they should wear cut-aways, strollers, black or dark-colored suites. Your father, if he is not in the military, should do the same.

Invitations to a military wedding read almost the same as those for a civilian wedding. However, you should include your fiance's rank and branch. For instance, instead of John Smith, you would put, Lieutenant John Smith, U.S. Army.

The saber arch is one of the things that makes the military wedding so special. During the recessional, the bridge and groom walk under an arch made by the ushers or designated saberbearers. This is also the most photographed part of a military wedding. A good rule of thumb is to have four to six saberbearers in your wedding party: they can serve as ushers or can be separated from the ushers. It looks nice to have the same number of bridesmaids as saberbearers, but this is up to you.

Commanding officers should always be seated according to their ranks. Your ushers will probably, if they are in the service, know how to do this. Other officers may sit anywhere. The chaplains at each of the military academies have provided a summary of their own specific rules.
United States Naval Academy: Annapolis, Maryland. The following people can be married at the U.S. Naval Academy Chapel: Naval Academy graduates, active or retired, and their children; military personnel assigned to Annapolis, and
their children; Academy faculty, active or retired, and their children; and military personnel retired with pay, and their children who regularly attend the Academy Chapel.

Weddings are scheduled through the senior chaplain's office, which can be found in the wedding handbook. Weddings can be held Monday through Saturday from noon to 4:00 P.M. except for the week of commissioning. After the application has been received, you will be issued a time for the rehearsal and wedding.

During commissioning week, the Chapel is reserved for the graduating midshipmen only. The scheduling for their weddings is usually different from weddings at other times. For information on commissioning week weddings, you should contact the office of the senior chaplain.

Only Naval Academy chaplains will peform weddings in the Naval Academy Chapel, and the Academy chaplains advice premarital counseling before a couple are married in the Chapel. If you live far away from the Academy, the chaplains
will suggest a counselor.

The arch of swords, as it is called in the Navy, takes place in the Chapel steps. Since the Chapel does not supply swords, your party must furnish them.

Music for the wedding is the responsibility of the director of musical activities at the Naval Academy. Only appropriate sacred music can be used. Soloists and guest instrumentalists are not encouraged at the Chapel.

Pictures can be taken in the Bride's Room, in the sacristy, and outside the Chapel before the ceremony. A flash may be used during the processional and the recessional. Pictures may be taken in the new nave during the ceremony, including the balconies, without flash. No pictures may be taken in the Chapel after the ceremony unless the weather is inclement.

Flowers for the Chapel are provided by the Chapel Altar Guild. These flowers cannot be removed from the Chapel after the wedding. Flowers for the members of the wedding party are the responsibility of those getting married.

Rice cannot be thrown inside or outside the Chapel. Be sure to inform your guests of this restriction.

There are rooms for last-minute preparations at the Chapel, but at the beginning of the ceremony everything should be removed from these rooms.

A mininum contribution should be made to the Protestant or Catholic Chapel. This is to be paid when you submit your application: it helps to defray the cost of marriage books, candles, flowers, and music.

United States Air Force Academy: Colorado Springs, Colorado. The Academy has two different chapels and a different booklet for each.

The Protestant Chapel can be used only by graduates of any military academy and active-duty military personnel assigned to the U.S. Air Force Academy, and their dependents. This is an Academy regulation. Chaplains that are assigned to the Academy normally preside over the wedding, but in special circumstances other clergy may officiate. Premarital counseling is mandatory for all marriages, beginning at least thirty days before the ceremony.

Rehearsals should be scheduled with the chaplain. Flowers are to be provided by the wedding party, and should be delivered to the Chapel. White runners are not allowed because of the highly polished floor.

The Chapel provides candles and kneeling cushions for the bride and groom. Sabers and baldrics (holders for the sabers) are available at the Chapel, too. However, they cannot be removed.

Pictures may be taken with a flash only during the processional and following the benediction. Pictures of the religious portion of your wedding may be taken from the balcony only. Flashbulbs are not allowed at that time.  Flashbulbs may be used during the arch of sabers. There will be time after the wedding for pictures.

In the interest of time, a reception line cannot be formed at the end of your wedding. Weddings at the Chapel must also begin and end on schedule.

Nothing--rice, confetti, or flower  petals--can be thrown either inside or outside the Chapel (mainly for safely reasons).

Military chaplains do not receive fees for their services. Donations can be given, but there is no charge for the use of the Chapel.

The Catholic ceremony is relatively the same. However, there are a few differences.

Catholics need a copy of their record of baptism from the church where it was performed. This needs to be issued six months prior to the ceremony. A questionnaire must be filled out in the presence of a priest. If the marriage is interfaith, special counseling on the responsibilities of being Catholic is required before the ceremony. For all couples marrying in the Catholic Church, attendance at premarital sessions is required. You must also obtain permission from your pastor to be married in any church other than your own parish. Sabers are not permitted inside the Catholic Church.

United States Military Academy: West point, New York. West Point does not have a bride's handbook, but Chaplain Louis Bernhardt offers some tips for brides who want to be married at West Point.

According to Chaplain Louis Bernhardt, the bride must bring to West Point everything that the party will need. If you are marrying a graduating cadet, he will draw lots several months before the event to determine what time your wedding will take place during June week. Weddings begin one hour after graduation and run continuously throughout the week. There are three chapels at the Academy and one Jewish Synagogue.

Chaplain Louis Bernhardt said that the hardest thing about having your wedding during June week is finding a place to stay. There is one hotel in Highland Falls; and it is booked early in February because of all the wedding parties and all of the parents and relatives who plan to attend graduation. You should make
reservations at the hotel for your entire wedding party as soon as you know the date. Follow this immediately with a call to the officer's club about the reception. It is very important that you include a "reception following" card with an R.S.V.P. on it so that you know the number of guests to expect.

Order the flowers from the florist early and recheck to make sure that there is no mix-up as to the time and place.  Photographs depend on the church--you will have to ask the chaplain of the chapel you have chosen. Rehearsals are set by appointment. First, you should check on any special rules that your church might have on the drawing of sabers.
Planning a military wedding is basically no different from planning any other type of wedding, until the conclusion. The recessional proceeds like this: The bride and groom leave the church first, followed by the bridesmaids and seaberbears. When the bride and groom reach the back of the church, they step aside to let the wedding party and congregation leave. After everyone is out of the church, the saberbears form two lines facing each other to form an arch of sabers. According to officers who have had military weddings, the saber arch should be practiced before the wedding. Make sure that officers participating in the saber arch leave enough room between them so the bride and groom can go under side by side.

The commands for the arch are as follows: Sabers are carried in the "carry draw" position. At the command of "draw sabers," the arch is formed. Each bearer raises his right arm with saber in hand rotating the arm until the blade is on top. If the saberbears bend their wrists, they should have a true arch. At the command, "return sabers," the saberberars return their sabers to the "carry draw" position. Your saberbears should know what the "carry draw" position is: if the are unsure, it is partially in the baldric and partially out.

Only the bride and groom may walk under the saber arch.

One special tradition at a military wedding reception is that the bride and groom cut the first piece of cake with the groom's saber. The groom places his hand on the hilt of the saber (the handle) and the bride guides the blade.

A military wedding can be as modern or as traditional as you want to make it. Concluding with the arch of sabers adds an especially memorable touch for you and your officer husband.

For the last 15 years Father Louis has been know as the "Riverwalk Pastor" and he continues to this date! Father Louis is Ordained by:

The Anglican Rite Old Catholic Church * Consecrated Bishop 1996 *

Call Father Louis at 832-569-2014.




Source by Father Louis Bernhardt, OSA

Top 10 Things to Do and See in Krabi Thailand

With so many activities that are perfect for the whole family to enjoy, Krabi has framed itself as a laid-back resort destination where the emphasis falls on comfort and relaxation instead of on high-energy parties. The natural landscape is accentuated by limestone outcroppings known as karsts that pop up all over the countryside. With abundant plant life and beautiful coral reefs, there's plenty to explore while you're staying here.

Exploring the archipelago
One of the most remarkable ways to experience the limestone rock formations and spectacular beaches is to take a daytrip from one island to another. Many tour guides offer organised daytrips to the highlights of the archipelago, which are worth it and a chance to break away from the crowds of the mainland resort. For the more independent explorer, sea kayaks can be rented for trips out to some of the nearest small islands. A boat day trip to Phi Phi is a must too!

Than Bok Khoranie National Park
If you have a tent and would like a place to set up camp, consider heading out to Than Bok Khorani National Park, a secluded place with no concrete accommodation but an abundance of plant species culminating in a very picturesque pond surrounded by gardenias and apocynaceae. The park also boasts several limestone caves and some lovely mangrove forests. Many visit on a day trip from Phuket.

Rock climbing
Many rock climbing outfitters in Krabi also give lessons at various skill levels to help you improve your rock climbing abilities. The limestone cliffs and unique stone formations have helped Krabi carve out a global reputation among rock climbing circles. Ton Sai is the first stop for most climbers, as it's the most frequented climbed spot in the area. Other climbing outings to more secluded areas are easily arranged with the help of climbing outfitters.

Koh Lanta Marine National Park
The sea gypsies, or Chai Leh, still live and work on the island of Koh Lanta—now a marine national park. For centuries they have practiced their own form of spirit worship and spoken their own distinct language. This island also has the region's standard fare of beautiful beaches, unique rock formations and stunning coral reefs for exploration. Some of the rainforest on this island is virtually untouched and remains protected. Visitors can rent bungalows and stay a while. It's also connected to Phi Phi island by ferry.

Shell Fossil Cemetery
Thirty five million years ago, the site of Ban Laem Pho Cape was an enormous freshwater swamp that hosted millions of small snails. The remains of these creatures formed a fossilised composite that has grown almost 16 inches thick. This huge slab has become one of Krabi's most popular attractions and can be reached via a 10-mile drive from the town of Krabi.

Krabi nightlife
Ao Nang Beach resort area is the primary tourist hub of Krabi, with Krabi Town itself not offering a whole lot to out-of-towners except for a glimpse of everyday life for the locals. While not quite as exciting as Phuket, in the resort area you'll find bars and restaurants whose doors remain open past midnight, though you'll be hard-pressed to find any exhilarating parties or discotheques. Instead, this is a more family-oriented holiday spot with some nice restaurants and a relaxed, quiet atmosphere.

Scuba diving
The official diving season in Krabi is from November to Mach, though the conditions are hospitable all year round and divers are here at every time of the year. Snorkelling is also a great way to get a view of the coral reefs. Diving companies on the mainland can get you certified as a diver and will also arrange diving trips out to all of the best reefs in the surrounding area. The diving at Phi Phi is especially good.

Biking
Bikes can be rented in the Ao Nang resort area, and a cycling loop that heads out of town guides cyclist through the limestone rock formations that dot the landscape. The road curves through old villages and groves of coconut trees, and riders can stretch this spectacular route into as much as 15 or 20 miles of biking.

Railay Beach
Railay Beach may be the region's most unique coastal area, with its crescent shaped coastline that's cut off from the mainland by huge outcroppings of rock. Only accessible by boat, you can charter a vessel to drop you off for a daytrip to Phra Nang, a sacred enshrined cave, or for an overnight stay in one of the resorts that lay claim to these peaceful beaches. Even the beaches at Phuket don't even compete!

Daytrip to Wat Tham Seua
Wat Tham Seua is the largest temple in Krabi, and its name means Tiger Cave Temple. It's literally tucked into the limestone cliffs of Ao Luk Thanu mountain range, and the Buddhist monks that live and worship here do so in the caves themselves. The highlight of this temple is 'Buddha's footprint', located at the summit of a 1,272-step climb, a point that affords wonderful views of the countryside spreading in every direction.




Source by Andy Burrows

Oil Spill Concerns Impact Gulf Hotel Bookings

No matter how available cheap airplane tickets are or discount hotel rooms, concern over whether there may be oil on beaches is negatively impacting hotel bookings in the Florida Panhandle.  Reservations are down anywhere between 30 to 50 percent compared to last year.

Ironically except for three beaches in Louisiana, all of the Gulf's beaches are open, safe and clean.  President Obama commented last week that "Americans can help by continuing to visit the communities and beaches of the Gulf Coast." The travel business is hurt during any publicized natural disaster, but some of the loss is replaced by those coming to the communities to help in the recovery.

Hotels are complaining that there is no evidence of any oil on their beaches and pointing out that charter fishing boats are successfully continuing their operations, but the perception is that there is oil on Gulf beaches.

To try to assuage unwarranted concerns about oil problems, many hotels have changed their cancellation policies or offered to refund room rates if guests see any oil on the beach.

The Resort Collection of Panama City Beach, which operates six hotel properties, has an ad on its Facebook page which proclaims "The only oil on our beach is suntan oil!" Sounds sticky.

Cancellations at beach hotels have been slowed where hotels have started offering oil free beach guarantees.  As word continues to get out that most beaches are oil free, hotel operators are hoping that they will experience more last minute bookings than normal.

www.cheapfares.com




Source by Steve Robinson

Fly With Kingfisher Red Airlines at Affordable Rates

If you are one among those who love to touch the sky experiencing the beautiful affair of clouds and skies, the air journey can be a very relaxing and fun-filled means of commuting for you. If you are looking for a break from your mundane daily working life, then a trip to a dream destination with your family and friends can do magic for you. And what can be the best mode for your journey than air-travel to make fun reaching its max. Booking a cheap Kingfisher Red tickets is the first step towards making your dream of air travel to an exotic land a reality.

In the last couple of years, fares for all the domestic airlines ticket have come down significantly. Due to the emergence of a number of low-cost airliners in the domestic sky, competition has taken a serious turn thus resulting in fall in airfares.More and more people have shown their interest in flying fulfilling their long-brooded dreams. Airliners have also connected new places offering absolute connectivity.

Fly anywhere with your family members to exotic destination with Kingfisher Red for making your travel safe and hassle free. This Low-cost carrier Deccan has recently changed and now being renamed as Kingfisher Red. It will operate as a separate brand from Kingfisher Red Airlines. The leading business tycoon Mr. Vijay Mallya's UB Group has recently brought up Air Deccan airlines. It now sports the exciting kingfisher logo of UB Groups Kingfisher Airlines and is now known as Kingfisher Red. Air Deccan flights currently operates his flights to fly New Delhi, Bangalore, Mumbai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Goa, Jaipur, Hyderabad and many more. Presently, Air Deccan covers 57 destinations in India, which is more than any other airline in India.

Kingfisher and Kingfisher Red Airlines (formerly Air Deccan) collectively have 81 aircrafts in their fleet that service over 60 airports within India. Some of their most popular routes include flights between Delhi and Mumbai, Bangalore and Chennai, Delhi and Goa, Kolkata and Bangalore, Hyderabad and Chennai, Agatti and Kochi and Bangalore and Tirupati. Kingfisher also operates charter Flights to all routes in its network.

To add another feather in its illustrious cap, Kingfisher will begin flying international skies, commencing flights from Bangalore city to London early 2009.




Source by Rajeev Das

Find More Information on Best Flight Attendant Training Schools

Private pilot training academies provide the essential schooling for new wannabe flight mechanics and instructor pilot trainees with specialized intensive teaching programs. If the apprentice of helicopter flight lessons would like to be a licensed crew member in the business of aviation they have to follow the classes of any specialized airline steward school. Probably the most motivating feature regarding an ATP flight steward school is that the flight mechanic trainee requires specific skills and recognized physical and psychosomatic requirements that candidates ought to meet. 

The requirements for pursuing the private jet flight attendant training programs are the same as they are for standard flight attendants. This is because in order to become a flight attendant or licensed agriculture pilot, the candidate must pass the meticulous training provided by airlines. Some of the major airlines have their own airline training facilities and those who don't use the amenities of these airlines. Aviation professionals focus on creating an aviation career industry that runs smoothly by properly maintaining every feature of the field. Vocational colleges offer students with air force program options to educate them to become pilots, mechanics, and more. 

Apprentices who are fascinated in the mechanical aspects of aircraft might aspiration to learn aviation technology. Aviation maintenance technicians inspect, repair, and maintain aircraft, and they are in high demand. Aviation Maintenance and mechanic training will contain the study of mechanics, and may comprise onboard devices, such as radios, navigation systems, airline radar systems, flight computers, and many more complicated electronics.

Apprentices commonly love to dream of getting the job in aviation industries. Lots of girls and boys want to become airhostess/hosts, commercial pilot and flight steward attendant. They tend to look at the prospect to fly high up in the sky every day with admiration. Many of the apprentices may mistakenly consider that to become a licensed commercial pilot is beyond their reach. But contrary to their belief, a flight attendants job can be received after the completion of four year diploma program in the related aviation fields. Any one who wishes to decide a career, as an ATP flight trainee needs to get educated properly for the task.

Finding occupation as a corporate flight attendant or air cabin crew member can be a difficult process as, unlike the commercial aviation carriers, most business jets do not necessitate a flight attendant to work onboard an aircraft. Add to the mix that many operators do not choose to use flight attendants and the market tightens up even more. Flight attendant or flight mechanic training can take anywhere from 3 to 8 weeks and takes place at the airline's flight schooling center. Airlines often look for applicants to pursue the pilot training license who are personable and have some experience with handling the public.

There are frequent opportunities obtainable to those looking to receive an accredited education in aviation. Scholars of flight attendant training can register in an airline private school that recommends this type of education to prepare for the career they dream of. Choices include earning a recognized certificate, or associate, bachelor, or master level degree in adventure flying program. Training at the special levels will necessitate different amounts of time be spent on educational commercial pilot training. Students require studying a variety of courses based on their desired level of education.




Source by Mahajan